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Dum. A gallant lady. Monsieur, fare




Of that which hath so faithfully been paid.
King. I do protest I never heard of it;
And if you prove it, I'll repay it back,
Or yield up Aquitain.

We arrest your word.-
Boyet, you can produce acquittances
For such a sum from special officers
Of Charles his father.

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Where that and other specialties are bound:
To-morrow you shall have a sight of them.

King. It shall suffice me: at which interview, All liberal reason I will yield unto.

Meantime, receive such welcome at my hand,
As honour, without breach of honour, may
Make tender of to thy true worthiness:
You may not come, fair princess, in my gates:
But here without, you shall be so receiv'd,
As you shall deem yourself lodg'd in my heart,
Though so denied fair harbour in my house.
Your own good thoughts excuse me, and farewell:
To-morrow shall we visit you again.

Prin. Sweet health and fair desires consort your grace!

King. Thy own wish wish I thee in every place! [Exeunt KING and his train. Biron. Lady, I will commend you to mine own heart.

Ros. Pray you, do my commendations; I would be glad to see it.

Biron. I would you heard it groan.

Ros. Is the fool sick?

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Long. I beseech you a word: what is she in the white?

Boyet. A woman sometimes, an you saw her in the light.

Long. Perchance, light in the light. I desire

her name:

Boyet. She hath but one for herself; to desire that, were a shame.

Long. Pray you, sir, whose daughter?
Boyet. Her mother's, I have heard.

Long. God's blessing on your beard!
Boyet. Good sir, be not offended.
She is an heir of Falconbridge.

Long. Nay, my choler is ended.
She is a most sweet lady.

Boyet. Not unlike, sir; that may be.

[Exit LONG. Biron. [Coming forward.] What's her name in the cap


Boyet. Rosaline, by good hap.

Biron. Is she wedded, or no?

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to board.

Mar. Two hot sheeps,19 marry.


And wherefore not ships?

No sheep, sweet lamb, unless we feed on your


Mar. You sheep, and I pasture: shall that finish

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Dum. Sir, I pray you, a word: what lady is My lips are no common, though several they

that same?

Boyet. The heir of Alençon, Katharine her name.18

be.20 Boyet. Belonging to whom? Mar.

To my fortunes and me.

17. No point. A quibble on the point of a knife, and the French negative, point, none, not at all, by no means.

18. Katharine. In the Folio this name is here misprinted 'Rosaline; as, a little farther on, "Rosaline" is misprinted 'Katharine,' evident transpositions of the printer. Not only do the gentlemen interested in the respective ladies inquire after their particular fair one, recognising them in spite of their wearing masks, but the word "Alençon" in this speech tallies with what Katharine says previously:-" I saw him at the Duke Alençon's once."

19. Two hot sheeps. A play on the words "sheeps" and 'ships;" provincially pronounced alike. See Note 9, Act i., "Two Gentlemen of Verona." There is a pun on

20. No common, though several they be. the words "common" and "several" here. "Common" is played on in its sense of common land,' and of 'being common property;' while "several" is played on in its sense of ‘a 'a portion of land set apart from common land for more exclusive use,' and in its sense of that which may be severed or separated,' and 'more than one.'


Good wits will be jangling; but, gentles,21 Who, tend ring their own worth from where they agree:

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Boyet. Why, all his behaviours did make their retire

To the court of his eye, peeping thorough22 desire : His heart, like an agate, with your print impress'd,23

Proud with his form, in his eye pride express'd: His tongue, all impatient to speak and not see," Did stumble with haste in his eyesight to be; All senses to that sense did make their repair, To feel only looking on fairest of fair. Methought all his senses were lock'd in his eye, As jewels in crystal for some prince to buy;

were glass'd,

Did point you to buy them, along as you pass'd: His face's own margent 25 did quote such amazes, That all eyes saw his eyes enchanted with gazes. I'll give you Aquitain, and all that is his,

An you give him for my sake but one loving kiss. Prin. Come to our pavilion: Boyet is dispos'd.20 Boyet. But to speak that in words which his eye hath disclos'd:

I only have made a mouth of his eye,

By adding a tongue, which I know will not lie. Ros. Thou art an old love-monger, and speak'st skilfully.

Mar. He is Cupid's grandfather, and learns news of him.

Ros. Then was Venus like her mother; for her father is but grim.

Boyet. Do you hear, my mad wenches?

What, then, do you see?

Ros. Ay, our way to be gone. Boyet.

You are too hard for me. [Exeunt.

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Shakespeare uses this word as more modern diction uses gentle folk,' persons of good birth and good breeding.

22. Thorough. Sometimes used for 'through;' as "throughly" was for thoroughly.'

23. Like an agate, with your print impress'd. It was the fashion to engrave or sculpture figures on agates.

24. To speak and not see. This passage has been pronounced by the commentators to be "extremely odd:" but if we take "not see" to imply not see, because it is not the tongue's faculty to see,' the sentence means that his tongue hurried to his eyes that it might express what they beheld.

25. His face's own margent. It was the custom to print notes, quotations, &c., in the margin (or "margent," as it was then spelt) of books.

26. Dispos'd. This word was used by Shakespeare, and writers of his time, to express 'inclined to be too free in talk,' 'inclined to unseemly merriment.' The princess, rebuking

Arm. Sweet air!-Go, tenderness of years; take this key, give enlargement to the swain, bring him festinately hither: I must employ him in a letter to my love.

Moth. Master, will you win your love with a

French brawl?3

Arm. How meanest thou? brawling in French?

Poyet's freedom of speech, uses the word in this sense; but the old courtier parries the reproof, by taking the word in its more simple and ordinary acceptation, and framing his rejoinder accordingly.

1. Concolinel. This has been conjectured to be probably the beginning or name of an old song usually sung by the boy who performed Moth; it being frequently the way to leave still more indefinitely the song to be introduced in a play-merely inserting the Latin word cantant, or the words 'Here they sing.' But we think that "Concolinel" may have been merely a few syllables strung together to express warbling, or humming a tune, as we now use 'la li ra, la li ra,' &c.

2. Festinately. Hastily, speedily. Latin, festinato.

3. Brawl. The name of a dance, wherein the dancers held hands, and swayed or moved to and fro, from the French branie,


Moth. No, my complete master: but to jig off a tune at the tongue's end, canary3 to it with your feet, humour it with turning up your eyelids; sigh a note and sing a note,-sometime through the throat, as if you swallowed love with singing love, sometime through the nose, as if you snuffed up love by smelling love; with your hat penthouse like, o'er the shop of your eyes; with your arms crossed on your thin body's doublet, like a rabbit on a spit; or your hands in your pocket, like a man after the old painting; and keep not too long in one tune, but a snip and away. These are complements, these are humours; these betray nice wenches, that would be betrayed without these; and make them men of note (do you note, -men?)-that most are affected to these.

Arm. How hast thou purchased this experience? Moth. By my penny' of observation.

Arm. But oh,—but oh,—

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Moth. And three times as much more,-and yet plantain ! 16 nothing at all

4 Complete. Here, as elsewhere, used for accomplished. 5. Canary. The name of a sprightly dance, sometimes accompanied by castanets, and supposed to have derived its name from the Canary Islands, where it was much in favour.

6. Complements. Accomplishments; niceties which are the completion of excellence. See Note 20, Act i., and Note 4, Act iii.

7. Penny. Sometimes used formerly to express an indefinite sum. See Note 12, Act i., "Merry Wives of Windsor."

8. The hobby-horse is forgot. Armado sighing forth, "But oh, --but oh," Moth follows it up by adding the remainder of a line of a song, probably written when the hobby-horse was omitted from the May games at the instance of the Puritans; which was their first step in doing their utmost to suppress these popular sports. See Note 28, Act iii., "Much Ado about Nothing." 9. Minimè. Not in the least, by no means.

10. Swift. Moth plays on the word in its sense of 'readywitted,' and in its sense of 'rash,' 'hasty.'

11. Welkin. The sky; the region of air.

12. Gives thee piace. This seems to have been an idiom tantamount to 'gives thee warrant,' 'forms thine excuse.' Armado's Spanish grandiloquence and courtesy-praying leave to

Arm. By virtue, thou enforcest laughter; thy

sigh in the sky's face, and saying that his valour will warrant this rudeness of his melancholy-although deteriorated by affec tation, smacks strongly of Don Quixote's lofty style in amenities of this kind. Any connecting link between those large-minded thinkers, Shakespeare and Cervantes, is pleasant; and although strict accuracy prevents our still saying they died on the same day, yet they wrote and benefited the world at the same period. 13. Costard. A name for the head; which supplies the pun that Moth calls "a wonder."

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14. L envoy. A term used in old French poetry for certain concluding verses which served to point the application of the story, or addressed it to the reader, or to some special person. The term was adopted in ancient English poems.

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15. No salve in them all. The Folio misprints this no salve, in thee male sir.' This has been given by some editors, altering 'thee' to 'the,' and explained to mean 'no salve in the bag, or trunk;' but we adopt Tyrrwhitt's reading, which seems to accord with what follows of Costard's taking enigma, riddle, and l'envoy to be various kinds of salve.

16. Plantain. A herb, the healing properties of which were highly esteemed; and it was reckoned a sovereign cure for wounds.

VOL. 1.


silly thought, my spleen: " the heaving of my lungs provokes me to ridiculous smiling,-oh, pardon me, my stars! Doth the inconsiderate take salve for l'envoy, and the word l'envoy for a salve?

Moth. Do the wise think them other? is not l'envoy a salve 18

Arm. No, page: it is an epilogue, or discourse, to make plain

Some obscure precedence that hath tofore been sain. 19

I will example it:

The fox, the ape, and the humble-bee,

Were still at odds, being but three.

There's the moral. Now the l'envoy.

Moth. I will add the l'envoy. Say the moral again.

Arm. The fox, the ape, and the humble-bee,
Were still at odds, being but three.

Moth. Until the goose came out of door,

And stay'd the odds by adding four.20 Now will I begin your moral, and do you follow with my l'envoy.

The fox, the ape, and the humble-bee, Were still at odds, being but three. Arm. Until the goose came out of door, Staying the odds by adding four. Moth. A good l'envoy, ending in the goose: would you desire more ?

Cost. The boy hath sold him a bargain, a goose, that's flat.

Sir, your pennyworth is good, an your goose be fat.— To sell a bargain well, is as cunning as fast and loose :

Let me see a fat l'envoy; ay, that's a fat goose. Arm. Come hither, come hither. How did this argument begin?

Moth. By saying that a Costard was broken in a shin.

17. Spleen. Believed to be the seat of immoderate mirth, as well as of its opposites-melancholy and anger.

18. Is not l'envoy a salve? After the others have been using the word "salve," in its sense of unguent,' Moth puns upon it, in its sense as a Latin form of salutation. The latter is pronounced differently (salvé); but as the words are spelt alike, it is quite enough for Master Moth's love of quibbling.



Sain. An old form of 'said;' here used for the sake of

20. Four. Here used for 'a fourth,' to make the rhyme. 21. Sold him a bargain. "Sold" was, and is still, a slang expression for being made a dupe of, made a fool of. See Note 9, Act iii., "Comedy of Errors."

22. And he ended the market. An allusion to the old proverb, 'Three women and a goose make a market.'

2. Sensibly. Moth uses this word in its usual acceptation of plainly, simply, with good sense; meaning that he will tell how Costard broke his shin, without punning on the words. But Costard takes "sensibly" in the signification it sometimes bore of 'feelingly,'' sensitively,' and replies with a quibble.

24 Enfranchise. Costard, not being able to make out the meaning of this word, fancies it involves a promise of giving him in marriage to some girl of the name of "Frances." It has been

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Then the boy's fat l'envoy, the goose that you bought;

And he ended the market.22

Arm. But tell me; how was there a Costard broken in a shin?

Moth. I will tell you sensibly.23

Cost. Thou hast no feeling of it, Moth: I will speak that l'envoy :

1 Costard, running out, that was safely within, Fell over the threshold, and broke my shin. Arm. We will talk no more of this matter. Cost. Till there be more matter in the shin. Arm. Sirrah Costard, I will enfranchise 24


Cost. Oh, marry me to one Frances:-I smell some l'envoy, some goose, in this.

Arm. By my sweet soul, I mean setting thee at liberty, enfreedoming thy person: thou wert immured, restrained, captivated, bound.

Cost. True, true; and now you will be my purgation, and let me loose.

Arm. I give thee thy liberty, set thee from durance; and, in lieu thereof, impose on thee nothing but this [giving a letter]:-bear this significant 25 to the country maid Jaquenetta. [Giving money.] There is remuneration; for the best ward of mine honour is rewarding my dependents. -Moth, follow.


Moth. Like the sequel, I.26-Signior Costard, adieu.

Cost. My sweet ounce of man's flesh! my incony Jew! [Exit MOTH. Now will I look to his remuneration. Remuneration! Oh, that's the Latin word for three farthings: three farthings,-remuneration.-"What's

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26. Like the sequel, I. Sequel" is here used in its sense as derived from the Latin word sequela; one of the meanings of which is a train, or retinue of followers.' Moth fleers at his master's train of attendants consisting in a single page-his diminutive self. There is a similar allusion in "The Merry Wives of Windsor." See Note 50, Act i., of that play.

27. My incony Jew! "Incony," as appears from various passages where it occurs in the old dramatists, seems to mean dainty, delicate, delectable. Its derivation is uncertain; though some have thought that it has analogy with our North British word " canny," which means neat, nice, gentle, mild, knowing. 'Jew" is here, and once elsewhere, used by Shakespeare as a

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the price of this inkle ?" 28" A penny."-" No, I'l give you a remuneration:" why, it carries it."_ Remuneration!-why, it is a fairer name than French crown. I will never buy and sell out of this word.

Enter BIRON.

Biron. Oh, my good knave Costard! exceedingly well met.

The princess comes to hunt here in the park,
And in her train there is a gentle lady;
When tongues speak sweetly, then they name her


And Rosaline they call her: ask for her;
And to her white hand see thou do commend
This seal'd-up counsel. [Gives him money.]
'There's thy guerdon; go.

Cost. Gardon,—Oh, sweet gardon! better than

Cost. Pray you, sir, how much carnation riband | remuneration: eleven-pence farthing better: most may a man buy for a remuneration?

Biron. What is a remuneration?

Cost. Marry, sir, halfpenny farthing.

sweet gardon!--I will do it, sir, in print.32-Gardon
Biron. Oh, and I, forsooth, in love! I, that

Biron. Oh, why, then, three-farthings-worth of have been love's whip;

Cost. I thank your worship: God be wi' you!
Biron. Oh, stay, slave; I must employ thee:
As thou wilt win my favour, good my knave,
Do one thing for me that I shall entreat.

Cost. When would you have it done, sir?
Biron. Oh, this afternoon.

Cost. Well, I will do it, sir: fare you well.
Biron. Oh, thou knowest not what it is.
Cost. I shall know, sir, when I have done it.
Biron. Why, villain, thou must know first.
Cost. I will come to your worship to-morrow

A very beadle to a humorous sigh;

A critic, nay, a night-watch constable;
A domineering pedant o'er the boy,
Than whom no mortal so magnificent!
This wimpled, whining, purblind, wayward boy;
This senior-junior,3 giant-dwarf, Dan Cupid;
Regent of love-rhymes, lord of folded arms,
Th' anointed sovereign of sighs and groans,
Liege of all loiterers and malcontents,
Sole imperator and great general
Of trotting paritors: -Oh, my little heart!—
And I to be a corporal of his field,38
And wear his colours like a tumbler's hoop!"

Biron. It must be done this afternoon. Hark! What! I love! I sue! I seek a wife! slave, it is but this:

term of endearment; and it strikes us that it may have been a corruption of the French fondling words 'choux,'' chou-chou,' or 'joujou;' the latter meaning a plaything; or possibly an abbreviation of bijou, jewel.

28. Inkle. A kind of tape. This was well given by Steele as a name for the narrow-souled hero in his tale of "Inkle and Yarico" (Spectator, vol. i., No. 11).

29. It carries it. An idiomatic expression, used by Shakespeare, meaning something similar to the familiar phrase, 'It carries the day!' 'It surpasses, it transcends.'

30. Oh, my good knave Costard! "Knave" was formerly often used simply for boy or lad. See Note 46, Act iii., “Merry Wives of Windsor."

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33. Humorous. Shakespeare uses this word with various significations; he here employs it to signify full of amorous fancies, passionate imaginings; as he puts the word "humours into Mercutio's mouth, by way of bantering appellation for his bewitched friend: "Romeo! humours! madman! passion! lover!" "Romeo and Juliet," ii. 1.

34. Wimpled. A wimple was strictly a covering for the throat, or for the head and throat, such as was worn by nuns ; but the word was also used for a veil or hood. Here Shakespeare uses "wimpled" as 'veiled;' Cupid's eyes being represented as covered or bandaged.

35. This senior-junior. Misprinted in the Folio, 'this signior Junios; the italics and the title 'signior' making it look as if it were a proper name, in the extremely misleading way of many similar typographical mistakes in that volume. But the words that follow-“giant-dwarf”—show such compound word of antithetical meaning to have been intended by the poet; as

A woman, that is like a German clock,40

he elsewhere has these sequences of contradictory epithets (for instance, "dove-feather'd raven! wolvish-ravening lamb!" "Romeo and Juliet," iii. 2. Moreover, "senior-junior" precisely tallies with the description of Cupid in Act v. sc. 2 of the present play, where he is said to have "been five thousand years a boy." Theobald had the correction suggested to him, but hesitated to adopt it, which Johnson afterwards did; and he has been followed by most subsequent editors.

36. Imperator. Commander.

37. Trotting paritors. A "paritor," or apparitor, was an officer of spiritual courts, employed to carry out citations; and as these citations were generally served upon offenders against the laws of love-propriety, Biron states "paritors" to be under Cupid's command. The epithet "trotting" is graphically appropriate to those whose duty it is to carry and serve summonses hither and thither; moreover, "trotting paritors" includes the idea of the whole tribe of busy-bodies, go-betweens, matchmakers, letter-carriers, billet-conveyers, frequently employed in love-affairs to summon refractory hearts.

38. Corporal of his field. A 'corporal of the field' was an officer similar in grade and duty to what is now called an uid-de-camp; who is employed in carrying to and fro the orders of the general, or other of the higher officers of the field.

39. Wear his colours like a tumbler's hoop. There is a treble allusion here: to wearing the uniform or badge of a leader; to the then fashion among young gallants of wearing their mistress's favourite colour as a favour, as a token of vowing themselves to her service, and as manifesting their allegiance to her; and to the custom of tumblers in decorating their hoops with bright-coloured ribbons.

40. A German clock. There is more than one allusion in the elder dramatists to the intricate machinery of German clocks (at that time first imported into England), as affording illustration of women's elaborate making-up,' frequently being 'out of sorts,' and constantly requiring to be 'put to rights.'

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