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Arm. Most sweet Hercules!-More authority, dear boy, name more; and, sweet my child, let them be men of good repute and carriage.

Moth. Samson, master: he was a man of good carriage, great carriage,—for he carried the towngates on his back like a porter: and he was in love.

Arm. Oh, well-knit Samson! strong-jointed Samson! I do excel thee in my rapier, as much as thou didst me in carrying gates. I am in love too-who was Samson's love, my dear Moth?

Moth. A woman, master.

Arm. Of what complexion?

Arm. Sweet invocation of a child; most pretty and pathetical!

Moth. If she be made of white and red,

Her faults will ne'er be known;
For blushing cheeks by faults are bred,
And fears by pale-white shown:
Then if she fear, or be to blame,
By this you shall not know;
For still her cheeks possess the same
Which native she doth owe.49

A dangerous 50 rhyme, master, against the reason of
white and red.

Arm. Is there not a ballad, boy, of the King and the Beggar ?51

Moth. The world was very guilty of such a ballad some three ages since: but, I think, now 'tis not to be found; or, if it were, it would neither serve for the writing nor the tune.

Arm. I will have that subject newly writ o'er,

Moth. Of all the four, or the three, or the two; that I may example my digression 52 by some or one of the four.

Arm. Tell me precisely of what complexion

Moth. Of the sea-water green, sir.

Arm. Is that one of the four complexions?

mighty precedent. Boy, I do love that country girl that I took in the park with the rational hind 53 Costard: she deserves well.

Moth. [Aside.] To be whipped; and yet a better

Moth. As I have read, sir; and the best of love than my master. them too.

Arm. Green, indeed, is the colour of lovers ; 47 but to have a love of that colour, methinks Samson had small reason for it. He surely affected her for her wit.

Moth. It was so, sir; for she had a green wit. Arm. My love is most immaculate white and red.

Moth. Most maculate 8 thoughts, master, are masked under such colours.

Arm. Define, define, well-educated infant. Moth. My father's wit, and my mother's tongue, assist me!

46. Court'sy. Was formerly used for a man's bow, as well as for a woman's act of reverence or salutation.

47. Green, indeed, is the colour of lovers. The commentators contest that here " 'green" has allusion either to jealousy, to green-hued eyes (then thought a beauty), or to the willow, as a badge of unsuccessful love. But we think "green," as "the colour of lovers," includes also various other allusions which make it Shakespearianly appropriate, according to his way of combining several meanings in one word. "Green" has been sometimes used for an emblem of hope, and thus is suitable for favoured lovers; it is occasionally significant of desertion, and therefore applicable to forsaken or rejected lovers. [That this was a popular belief may be attested by the fact that when Queen Caroline, the consort of George IV., was neglected by her husband, it was observed that the first time she appeared at court after this became publicly known, she wore a green dress.] It is used as a synonyme for 'pale' and' sickly' by writers of his time, as well as by Shakespeare himself, and a pallid complexion was thought an accompaniment of love-sick persons; it poetically embodies youth and spring, the season of lovers; and moreover, "green" is often used, even to this day, as a term for 'inexperienced,' 'unripe in judgment,' 'immature,' 'raw,'-which by elderly gallants of Armado's description may well be supposed

Arm. Sing, boy; my spirit grows heavy in love.
Moth. And that's great marvel, loving a light


Arm. I say, sing.


Forbear till this company be past.


Dull. Sir, the duke's pleasure is, that you keep Costard safe and you must let him take no delight nor no penance; but 'a must fast three days a week. For this damsel, I must keep her at the park: she is allowed for the day-woman." Fare you well.

characteristic of falling in love. Moth uses the word in this last sense immediately after, when he says-" She had a green wit."

48. Maculate. Spotted, stained; Latin, maculatus; here used for impure. Which she possesses by

49. Which native she doth owe. nature. See Note 63, Act i., "Tempest."

50, Dangerous. Used here, as "perilous" is sometimes used, to express menacing, severe, keen, sharp. The word is employed in the same sense, in the first scene, where Biron exclaims :"A dangerous law against gentility!"

51. King and the Beggar. In allusion to a ballad called "King Cophetua and the Beggar-maid;" which is to be found printed in "Percy's Reliques.'

52. Digression. Used in its sense of deviating from the right way, passing out of bounds; as 'transgression.'

53. Rational hind. Armado uses "hind" in its sense of peasant, or boor, hardly a degree in intellect above the animal of that name; as if he would have called him the reasoning brute,' 'the beast capable of discoursing.'

54. Day-woman. Dairy-woman. Day, or dey, was an old word for milk, and hence came to be used for a dairy maid; from the Icelandic deggia, to give milk. The term 'dey-woman'

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And so, farewell.

Jaq. Fair weather after you!
Dull. Come, Jaquenetta, away!

[Exeunt DULL and JAQUENETTA. Arm. Villain, thou shalt fast for thy offences ere thou be pardoned.

Cost. Well, sir, I hope, when I do it, I shall do it on a full stomach.

Arm. Thou shalt be heavily punished.

Cost. I am more bound to you than your fellows, for they are but lightly rewarded.

Arm. Take away this villain; shut him up. Moth. Come, you transgressing slave: away! Cost. Let me not be pent up, sir: I will fast, being loose.

Moth. No, sir; that were fast and loose; thou shalt to prison.

Cost. Well, if ever I do see the merry days of desolation that I have seen, some shall see

is still in use in Scotland; and we find it thus employed by Sir Walter Scott in chap. xv., vol. ii., of his "Fair Maid of Perth.' 55. That's hereby. The country girl Jaquenetta jeeringly says this in the sense that the phrase bears in provincial use, 'That's as hereafter may be;' but Armado takes it in its usual sense of near here,' 'close by.'

56. With that face? A flippant rejoinder; used also by Fielding as a specimen of the second-hand wit in vogue among those who have none of their own, and therefore resort to cant phrases when they would indulge in raillery.

57. I do affect the very ground. To "affect" is to hold in affection, to love. There may also be a kind of play on the word, in its meaning of incline towards, have a tendency towards.

58. Familiar. The name for a demon, or spirit, supposed to attend at call,

Moth. What shall some see?

Cost. Nay, nothing, Master Moth, but what they look upon. It is not for prisoners to be too silent in their words; and therefore I will say nothing: I thank Heaven I have as little patience as another man; and therefore I can be quiet. [Exeunt MOTH and COSTARD.

Arm. I do affect the very ground,57 which is base, where her shoe, which is baser, guided by her foot, which is basest, doth tread. I shall be forsworn, -which is a great argument of falsehood,-if I love: and how can that be true love which is falsely attempted? Love is a familiar; 58 Love is a devil: there is no evil angel but Love. Yet was Samson so tempted, and he had an excellent strength; yet was Solomon so seduced,-and he had a very good wit. Cupid's butt-shaft 59 is too hard for Hercules' club; and therefore too much odds for a Spaniard's rapier. The first and second cause ❝ will not serve my turn; the passado he respects not, the duello he regards not: his disgrace is to be called boy; but his glory is to subdue men. Adieu, valour! rust, rapier! be still, drum! for your manager is in love; yea, he loveth. Assist me, some extemporal god of rhyme, for I am sure I shall turn sonneteer.62 Devise, wit,-write, pen; for I am for whole volumes in folio.


59 Butt-shaft. An arrow used for shooting at butts with; the "butt" being the place on which the mark to be aimed at

was set.

60. The first and second cause. These, "the passado," and "the duello," are terms borrowed from the school of fence, as discussed in certain treatises of that time by Italian writers.

61. Your manager is in love. In this fantastical construction of sentences, Armado having used the word "rapier," applies the term "manager" to "valour" and to "drum" as well as to his weapon; and for the latter application we have warrant in the passage-" -“Come, manage me your caliver" ("2 Henry IV.," iii. 2).

62. Sonneteer. Printed 'sonnet' in the old copies. Various alterations have been made; but we adopt Sir Thos. Hanmer's, as the probable correction.


SCENE I.-A part of the park: a pavilion and tents at a distance.

Enter the PRINCESS OF FRANCE, ROSALINE, MARIA, KATHARINE, BOYET, Lords, and other Attendants.

Boyet. Now, madam, summon up your dearest1 spirits:

Consider whom the king your father sends;
To whom he sends; and what's his embassy :
Yourself, held precious in the world's esteem,
To parley with the sole inheritor

Of all perfections that a man may owe,
Matchless Navarre; the plea of no less weight
Than Aquitain,-a dowry for a queen.
Be now as prodigal of all dear grace,
As Nature was in making graces dear,
When she did starve the general world beside,
And prodigally gave them all to you.

Prin. Good Lord Boyet, my beauty, though

but mean,

Needs not the painted flourish of your praise :
Beauty is bought by judgment of the eye,
Not utter'd by base sale of chapmen's tongues: 3
I am less proud to hear you tell my worth
Than you much willing to be counted wise
In spending your wit in the praise of mine.
But now to task the tasker :-good Boyet,
You are not ignorant, all-telling fame
Doth noise abroad, Navarre hath made a vow,
Till painful study shall outwear three years,
No woman may approach his silent court:
Therefore to us seem'th it a needful course,
Before we enter his forbidden gates,
To know his pleasure; and in that behalf,
Bold of your worthiness, we single you
As our best-moving fair solicitor.

Tell him, the daughter of the King of France,
On serious business, craving quick despatch,
Impórtunes personal conference with his grace:
Haste, signify so much; while we attend,
Like humble-visag'd suitors, his high will.
Boyet. Proud of employment, willingly I go.

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Prin. All pride is willing pride, and yours is so. [Exit BOYET. Who are the votaries, my loving lords, That are vow-fellows with this virtuous duke ?s First Lord. Longaville is one. Prin.

Know you the man?
Mar. I know him, madam: at a marriage-feast,
Between Lord Perigort and the beauteous heir
Of Jaques Falconbridge, solemnizèd

In Normandy, saw I this Longaville :
A man of sovereign parts he is esteem'd;
Well fitted in the arts, glorious in arms:
Nothing becomes him ill that he would well.
The only soil of his fair virtue's gloss—
If virtue's gloss will stain with any soil-
Is a sharp wit match'd with too blunt a will;
Whose edge hath power to cut, whose will still

It should none spare that come within his power.
Prin. Some merry mocking lord, belike; is't so?
Mar. They say so most that most his humours

Prin. Such short-liv'd wits do wither as they


Who are the rest?

Kath. The young Dumain, a well-accomplish'd youth,

Of all that virtue love for virtue lov'd:
Most power to do most harm, least knowing ill;
For he hath wit to make an ill shape good,
And shape to win grace, though he had no wit.
I saw him at the Duke Alençon's once;
And much too little of that good I saw
Is my report to his great worthiness.

Ros. Another of these students at that time
Was there with him if I have heard a truth,
Birón they call him; but a merrier man,
Within the limit of becoming mirth,

I never spent an hour's talk withal:
His eye begets occasion for his wit;
For every object that the one doth catch,
The other turns to a mirth-moving jest,
Which his fair tongue-conceit's expositor —

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Delivers in such apt and gracious words,
That agèd ears play truant at his tales,
And younger hearings are quite ravished;
So sweet and voluble is his discourse.

Prin. God bless my ladies! are they all in love,

That every one her own hath garnished
With such bedecking ornaments of praise?
First Lord. Here comes Boyet.


Re-enter BOYET.

Now, what admittance, lord? Boyet. Navarre had notice of your fair approach;

And he and his competitors1o in oath
Were all address'd11 to meet you, gentle lady,
Before I came. Marry, thus much I have learnt,—
He rather means to lodge you in the field,
Like one that comes here to besiege his court,
Than seek a dispensation for his oath,
To let you enter his unpeopled house.
Here comes Navarre.

[The Ladies mask.



King. Madam, I will, if suddenly I may.
Prin. You will the sooner, that I were away;
For you'll prove perjur'd, if you make me stay.
Biron. Did not I dance with you in Brabant
once ?

Ros. Did not I dance with you in Brabant once?
Biron. I know you did.

Ros. How needless was it, then, to ask the question!

Biron. You must not be so quick.

Ros. 'Tis 'long of you that spur me with such questions.

Biron. Your wit's too hot, it speeds too fast, 'twill tire.

Ros. Not till it leave the rider in the mire.
Biron. What time o' day?

Ros. The hour that fools should ask.
Biron. Now fair befall your mask!
Ros. Fair fall the face it covers!
Biron. And send you many lovers!
Ros. Amen, so you be none.

Biron. Nay, then will I be gone.

King. Madam, your father here doth intimate The payment of a hundred thousand crowns;

King. Fair princess, welcome to the court of Being but the one-half of an entire sum Navarre.

Prin. "Fair" I give you back again; and "welcome" I have not yet: the roof of this court is too high to be yours; and welcome to the wide fields too base to be mine.

Disbursed by my father in his wars.

But say that he or we-as neither have-
Receiv'd that sum, yet there remains unpaid
A hundred thousand more; in surety of the which,
One part of Aquitain is bound to us,

King. You shall be welcome, madam, to my Although not valu'd to the money's worth.


Prin. I will be welcome, then: conduct me thither.

King. Hear me, dear lady,—1 have sworn an oath.

Prin. Our lady help my lord! he'll be forsworn.
King. Not for the world, fair madam, by my will. |
Prin. Why, will shall break it; will, and
nothing else

King. Your ladyship is ignorant what it is.
Prin. Were my lord so, his ignorance were wise,
Where 12 now his knowledge must prove ignorance.
I hear your grace hath sworn-out house-keeping:
'Tis deadly sin to keep that oath, my lord,
And sin to break it.

But pardon me, I am too sudden-bold:
To teach a teacher ill beseemeth me.
Vouchsafe to read the purpose of my coming,
And suddenly 13 resolve me in my suit.

If, then, the king your father will restore
But that one half which is unsatisfied,
We will give up our right in Aquitain,
And hold fair friendship with his majesty.
But that, it seems, he little purposeth;
For here he doth demand to have repaid
A hundred thousand crowns; and not demands,
On payment of a hundred thousand crowns,
To have his title live in Aquitain; 15
Which we much rather had depart withal,"
And have the money by our father lent,
Than Aquitain, so cùrtail'd as it is.
Dear princess, were not his requests so far
From reason's yielding, your fair self should make
A yielding, 'gainst some reason, in my breast,
And go well satisfied to France again.

Prin. You do the king my father too much

And wrong the reputation of your name,

[Gives a paper. In so unseeming to confess receipt

10. Competitors. Used for confederates, consociates. 11. Address'd. Prepared.

12. Where. Here used for 'whereas,'

13. Suddenly. Formerly used for immediately, without delay. 14. 'Tis 'long of you. A pun upon "long" in its sense of lengthily or slowly (in reference to Biron's word “quick”); and in its sense of "long" as used in the colloquial phrase, 'it's

all along of you;' meaning, it's all through you, or owing to


15. His title live in Aquitain. The meaning of the entire passage is-'He here demands repayment of a hundred thousand crowns, instead of offering to repay us the hundred thousand crowns which would restore him his right to Aquitain.'

16. Depart withal. Here used for 'part with,' or 'relinquish.'

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