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The sixth phase of the Commission's work was ended on December 30, 1946 when by a vote of 10 to 0, with the U. S. S. R. and Poland abstaining, the Commission approved a report to the Security Council including, in slightly amended form, the general findings and recommendations of the United States Representative.10 As accepted, these findings and recommendations constitute the basic principles of the Proposals that have been consistently advocated by the United States.
Summary of Progress In the work of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission the United States, owing to its unique position in the field, has taken the lead in providing the information essential to a reasonable understanding of the problem of control and of its Proposals. None of the information provided has been of a secret character and the requirements of national security have been scrupulously guarded.
The United States has proceeded in the belief that, once the facts of the problem are adequately known and understood, the necessity for, and the requirement of, a fully effective system of control accompanied by adequate safeguards to protect the world against the dangers of atomic warfare will be agreed to by all Members of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.
That this program of factual analysis and discussion has borne fruit is evidenced by the progress which the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission has made thus far. After the Scientific and Technical Committee had found that there was no reason to believe that control of atomic energy was not scientifically and technologically feasible, the Committee on Controls agreed upon a series of specific safeguards which would have to be included as a part of any effective system of control and concluded that an international control agency must be responsible for the system of safeguards and control. By its action on December 30, the Commission agreed on certain general findings and recommendations which are in essence the basic principles of the United States Proposals.
While the Commission has still a long way to go before a treaty can be drafted to establish a fully effective international system of control, the progress made to date is heartening. Guided by the basic principles and findings which it agreed to on December 30, the Commission can now proceed with its more detailed study of the requirements of such a system.
Unanimity has not yet been achieved, but several statements made recently by representatives of the U.S.S.R., notably the Soviet Foreign Minister, Mr. V. M. Molotov, in the debates on the General
Assembly disarmament resolution of December 14, 1946, indicate that the area of agreement has become much more significant than in June when the Commission began its work.
There is good reason to hope that, if the imperatives of the problem are given the weight they deserve, the political obstacles that still stand in the way of arriving at a sound solution can be overcome and that the nations represented on the Atomic Energy Commission will be able to reach unanimity on a fully effective international system of control of atomic energy. .
IV. Economic and Social Council
United States Aims \HE ACTIVE AND whole-hearted participation of the United States
in the Economic and Social Council reflects a fundamental principle in this Government's foreign policy. The peace which has been won by force of arms cannot be fully realized or endure in a world weakened and split by economic anarchy and embittered by social injustice. The United States holds it to be imperative that this Council should, as quickly as possible, complete its organizational work, which has been tremendous, in order to grapple promptly with the urgent problems which lie in its field.
The most important of these problems involved healing the economic and social wounds of war-the reconstruction of devastated areas; the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons; and the renewal of the flow of trade, transportation, and finance,
The Representative of the United States to the Economic and Social Council is Mr. John G. Winant, and his reports to the Secretary of State on the three meetings held in 1946, which have been issued by the Department of State, contain detailed information on the accomplishments and activities of the Council to date. The Deputy United States Representative to the Economic and Social Council is Mr. Leroy D. Stinebower.
In the organizational field the United States has emphasized the need for the prompt establishment of the Commission structure necessary to handle the complicated work of the Council; for the organization and manning of the Secretariat with a view to highly competent and effective performance of the staff work of the Council and its Commissions; and for setting up working relationships between the Council and various specialized agencies and the conclusion of formal agreements of relationship as contemplated in the Charter. The United States also has initiated action for the establishment of new specialized agencies in such important fields as trade and employ. ment, health, and refugees; and has sought to bring into consulta
*Resigned Dec. 19, 1946.
tion non-governmental organizations active in the broad fields of the Council's concerns. The Council has now instituted action to give effect to most of these aims.
Organizational Phase 1. THE LONDON MEETINGS
The Preparatory Commission of the United Nations which met in London in December 1945 recommended an early meeting of the Economic and Social Council to enable it to undertake immediately the urgent tasks in its field. On January 23, 1946 the Council held its first session-just a few days after the General Assembly had elected the 18 members of the Council. Its inaugural session was devoted primarily to organizational problems such as: (1) the establishment of commissions along the lines recommended by the Preparatory Commission; (2) arrangements for bringing the specialized agencies into relationship with the United Nations; (3) arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations; (4) initiation of action on the subject of refugees and displaced persons; (5) the appointment of a committee to draft a constitution for a world health organization; and (6) the appointment of a preparatory committee to plan the work for a conference on trade and employment and to draft a charter for an international trade organization.
2. THE COMMISSION STRUCTURE
The primary organizational task of the new Council was to establish the commissions contemplated by the Charter and further proposed by the Preparatory Commission. Five of these, together with one subcommission, were set up in London on a temporary or “nuclear" basis to study suggested terms of reference, problems of composition and structure, and to outline programs of work for the permanent commissions when established. These nuclear commissions- Economic and Employment, Transport and Communications, Statistics, Social, Human Rights and its subcommission on the Status of Women-met in April and May in New York. The Council at its second session, May 25-June 21, reviewed the reports of these commissions and established the permanent commissions in each of these fields. On the initiative of the United States it raised the subcommission on Status of Women to the status of a full commission. The other three commissions—Narcotics, Fiscal, and Populationwere set up on a permanent basis, the first during the first session in London, the last two at the third session, September 11-October 3, in New York.
See appendix 2.
The composition of the commissions was determined by the Council at its second session after extensive discussion on the question of whether the members should be representatives of governments elected by the Council or persons appointed in their individual capacity. The Council finally agreed upon an intermediate course: nominating governments would be elected by the Council, and the persons nominated by governments would be confirmed by the Council after an opportunity had been given the Secretary-General of the United Nations to consult with various governments concerning their nominees, with a view to obtaining balanced commissions.
Current membership terms on the commissions are for two, three, or four years, as drawn by lot, with three-year terms thereafter. The United States was elected to all the commissions, as were China, France, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The structure of some of the subcommissions was likewise considered by the Council, which called upon the Economic and Employment Commission to establish a subcommission on Employment and Economic Stability, and another on Economic Development. Upon the initiative of the United States, the Commission on Human Rights was authorized to establish a subcommission on Freedom of Information. Two other subcommissions, Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, were also authorized.
3. THE SPECIALIZED AGENCIES
In providing for the establishment of relationships with various specialized agencies, the Charter of the United Nations gave recognition to the importance of having a focal point for coordination of the policies and activities of these agencies with those of the United Nations Organization itself.
The Charter entrusts the Economic and Social Council with the task of negotiating agreements with the specialized agencies for the purpose of bringing them into relationship with the United Nations and for making recommendations for the coordination of their activities. The Preparatory Commission recommended that agreements be negotiated initially with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). At its inaugural session the Council set up a committee to conduct these negotiations and at its second session was able to approve, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly 3 and the plenary bodies of the agencies, practically
* The agreements were approved by the General Assembly; see chap. I.