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On behalf of the United States I can say we are not discouraged. We shall continue to seek agreement by every possible means.

At the same time we shall also press for preparation of agreements in order that the Security Council may have at its disposal peace forces adequate to prevent acts of aggression.

The United Nations will not be able to remove the fear of war from the world unless substantial progress can be made in the next few years toward the realization of another of the four freedoms-freedom from want.

The Charter pledges the members of the United Nations to work together toward this end. The structure of the United Nations in this field is now nearing completion, with the Economic and Social Council, its commissions, and related specialized agencies. It provides more complete and effective institutions through which to work than the world has ever had before.

A great opportunity lies before us.

In these constructive tasks which concern directly the lives and welfare of human beings throughout the world, humanity and selfinterest alike demand of all of us the fullest cooperation.

The United States has already demonstrated in many ways its grave concern about economic reconstruction that will repair the damage done by war.

We have participated actively in every measure taken by the United Nations toward this end. We have in addition taken such separate national action as the granting of large loans and credits and renewal of our reciprocal trade-agreements program.

Through the establishment of the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Monetary Fund, members of the United Nations have proved their capacity for constructive cooperation toward common economic objectives. In addition, the International Labor Organization is being brought into relationship with the United Nations.

Now we must complete the structure. The United States attaches the highest importance to the creation of the International Trade Organization now being discussed in London by a preparatory committee.

This country wants to see not only the rapid restoration of devastated areas but the industrial and agricultural progress of the less well-developed areas of the world.

We believe that all nations should be able to develop a healthy economic life of their own. We believe that all peoples should be able to reap the benefits of their own labor and of their own natural resources.

There are immense possibilities in many parts of the world for industrial development and agricultural modernization.

These possibilities can be realized only by the cooperation of Members of the United Nations, helping each other on a basis of equal rights.

In the field of social reconstruction and advancement the completion of the charter for a world health organization is an important step forward.

The Assembly now has before it for adoption the constitution of another specialized agency in this field—the International Refugee Organization. It is essential that this Organization be created in time to take over from UNRRA as early as possible in the new year the tasks of caring for and repatriating or resettling the refugees and displaced persons of Europe. There will be similar tasks, of great magnitude, in the Far East.

The United States considers this a matter of great urgency in the cause of restoring peace and in the cause of humanity itself.

I intend to urge the Congress of the United States to authorize this country to do its full part both in financial support of the International Refugee Organization and in joining with other nations to receive those refugees who do not wish to return to their former homes for reasons of political or religious belief.

The United States believes a concerted effort must be made to break down the barriers to a free flow of information among the nations of the world.

We regard freedom of expression and freedom to receive information—the right of the people to know—as among the most important of those human rights and fundamental freedoms to which we are pledged under the United Nations Charter.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which is meeting in November, is a recognition of this fact. That Organization is built upon the premise that since wars begin in the minds of men, the defense of peace must be constructed in the minds of men, and that a free exchange of ideas and knowledge among peoples is necessary to this task. The United States therefore attaches great importance to all activities designed to break down barriers to mutual understanding and to wider tolerance.

The United States will support the United Nations with all the resources that we possess.

The use of force or the threat of force anywhere in the world to break the peace is of direct concern to the American people.

The course of history has made us one of the stronger nations of the world. It has therefore placed upon us special responsibilities

to conserve our strength and to use it rightly in a world so interdependent as our world today.

The American people recognize these special responsibilities. We shall do our best to meet them, both in the making of the peace settlements and in the fulfilment of the long-range tasks of the United Nations.

The American people look upon the United Nations not as a temporary expedient but as a permanent partnership—a partnership among the peoples of the world for their common peace and common well-being.

It must be the determined purpose of all of us to see that the United Nations lives and grows in the minds and the hearts of all peoples.

May Almighty God, in His infinite wisdom and mercy, guide us and sustain us as we seek to bring peace everlasting to the world.

With His help we shall succeed.

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3. Address by the Honorable

Honorable Warren R. Austin to the General Assembly, October 30, 1946

8 At the outset of what I have to say to the General Assembly I must refer briefly to the address made yesterday by the Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Mr. Molotov's speech indicated distrust and misunderstanding of the motives of the United States and of other Members of the United Nations. I do not believe that recriminations among nations allied in war and in peace promote that unity which Mr. Molotov so rightly points out is essential to the success of the United Nations.

In war we gave to our allies all the help and cooperation a great nation could. In peace the “United States will support the United Nations with all the resources we possess”.

Our motives in war and peace we leave to the judgment of history. We fought for freedom side by side without recrimination. Can't we fight for peace side by side without recrimination! That closes the sad chapter so far as we are concerned.

I shall not participate in any exchange of recriminations.

We welcome the confidence expressed by Mr. Molotov that unanimous agreement among all the nations both large and small can be achieved on such vital matters as the control of atomic energy and on steps to lighten the burden of armaments and military expenditures which still rests so heavily upon the peoples of the world.

The United States urges disarmament.

The United States believes that Mr. Molotov's proposal should be placed in our agenda and fully considered and discussed.

The initiative of the Soviet Union in this matter is appropriate, because of its mighty armies; just as the initiative of the United States was appropriate in proposing measures to prevent the manufacture and use of atomic weapons.

In November 1945 the United States took the initiative for outlawing the atomic bomb in the conversations at Washington among President Truman, Prime Minister Attlee and Prime Minister Mackenzie King. At Moscow in December 1945, the following month, conversations were held between Mr. Byrnes, Mr. Molotov, and Mr. Bevin on this subject. In this Assembly last January the resolution creating the Atomic Energy Commission and establishing its terms of ref

erence was unanimously adopted. Since then in the Commission itself the distinguished United States Representative, Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, presented proposals expressing the policy of the President of the United States.

The United States goes further. As President Truman emphasized again last week, it attaches the greatest importance to reaching agreements that will remove the deadly fear of other weapons of mass destruction in accordance with the same resolution passed by this Assembly.

So far as Mr. Molotov's resolution concerns the regulation and reduction of other armaments, the whole world knows where the United States stands and has always stood. For 20 years before the war and in the 15 months since the fighting stopped, the United States has consistently been in the forefront of those striving to reduce the burden of armaments upon the peoples of the world. Since the end of the war in Europe and the Pacific, the United States has progressively and rapidly reduced its military establishment.

After the last war we made the mistake of disarming unilaterally. We shall not repeat that mistake.

The United States is prepared to cooperate fully with all other Members of the United Nations in disarmament. It advocates effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violation and evasion.

We cannot reduce armaments merely by talking about the "regulation of armaments and possible disarmament", or the "heavy economic burden caused by excessive expenditures for armaments”. We cannot achieve it without positive acts which will establish the "peaceful post-war conditions” to which Mr. Molotov also referred.

Nor can a system for the regulation of armaments and possible disarmament as contemplated in articles 11, 26, and 47 of the Charter be effectively planned except in relation to progress in the negotiation of the armed forces agreements called for by article 43. At the beginning of April, four of the five members of the Military Staff Committee made specific proposals concerning the principles which should govern the negotiation of these agreements. In September the Soviet Union submitted for the first time a statement of its views on the problem.

I am happy to note that Mr. Molotov referred to the work of the Military Staff Committee. I hope it will now be possible for this Committee to make rapid progress. The conclusion of these agreements, providing the Security Council with peace forces adequate to prevent acts of aggression, is essential to carrying out the objectives of Mr. Molotov's resolution for the reduction of armaments.

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