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6. To ensure the adoption of measures for the early general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces, for the prohibition of the use of atomic energy for military purposes and the elimination from national armaments of atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now or in the future to mass destruction, and for the control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes,

THERE SHALL BE ESTABLISHED, within the framework of the Security Council, which bears the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, an international system, as mentioned in paragraph 4, operating through special organs, which organs shall derive their powers and status from the convention or conventions under which they are established.

7. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, regarding the problem of security as closely connected with that of disarmament,

RECOMMENDS the Security Council to accelerate as much as possible the placing at its disposal of the armed forces mentioned in Article 43 of the Charter;

IT RECOMMENDS the Members to undertake the progressive and balanced withdrawal, taking account of the needs of occupation, of their armed forces stationed in ex-enemy territories, and the withdrawal without delay of armed forces stationed in the territories of Members without their consent freely and publicly expressed in treaties or agreements consistent with the Charter and not contradicting international agreements;

IT FURTHER RECOMMENDS a corresponding reduction of national armed forces, and a general progressive and balanced reduction of national armed forces.

8. Nothing herein contained shall alter or limit the resolution of the General Assembly passed on 24 January 1946, creating the Atomic Energy Commission.

9. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

Calls upon all Members of the United Nations to render every possible assistance to the Security Council and the Atomic Energy Commission in order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and collective security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources.

Voting Procedure in the Security Council [This resolution requests the permanent members of the Security Council to seek to insure that the use of their special voting privileges does not impede the Council in reaching decisions promptly, and recommends that the Security Council adopt practices and procedures which will assist in this endeavor. Both Australia and Cuba placed this problem on the agenda of the General Assembly, and the resolution adopted is a modified version of an Australian proposal. The Assembly approved the resolution on December 13, 1946, by 36 votes against 6, with 9 abstentions. The United States voted in the affirmative.]

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

MINDFUL of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and having taken notice of the divergencies which have arisen in regard to the application and interpretation of Article 27 of the Charter:

EARNESTLY REQUESTS the permanent members of the Security Council to make every effort, in consultation with one another and with fellow members of the Security Council, to ensure that the use of the special voting privilege of its permanent members does not impede the Security Council in reaching decisions promptly;

RECOMMENDS to the Security Council the early adoption of practices and procedures, consistent with the Charter, to assist in reducing the difficulties in the application of Article 27 and to ensure the prompt and effective exercise by the Security Council of its functions; and

FURTHER RECOMMENDS that, in developing such practices and procedures, the Security Council take into consideration the views expressed by Members of the United Nations during the second part of the first session of the General Assembly.

Relations Between Spain and the United Nations

[In this resolution the General Assembly recommends that the Franco Government be barred from membership in international agencies established by or brought into relationship with the United Nations, and that Members recall their ambassadors and ministers plenipotentiary from Madrid. The United States abstained in the vote on one paragraph in the resolution suggesting that the Security Council consider measures to be taken to remedy the Spanish situation if a democratic Spanish Government is not established within a reasonable time. This paragraph was approved by a vote of 29 to 8, with 11 abstentions. The resolution as a whole was adopted on December 12, 1946, 34 to 6, with 13 abstentions, the United States voting for the resolution.]

The peoples of the United Nations, at San Francisco, Potsdam and London condemned the Franco regime in Spain and decided that as long as that regime remains, Spain may not be admitted to the United Nations.

The General Assembly, in its resolution of 9 February 1946, recommended that the Members of the United Nations should act in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the declarations of San Francisco and Potsdam.

The peoples of the United Nations assure the Spanish people of their enduring sympathy and of the cordial welcome awaiting them when circumstances enable them to be admitted to the United Nations.

The General Assembly recalls that in May and June 1946, the Security Council conducted an investigation of the possible further action to be taken by the United Nations. The Sub-Committee of the Security Council charged with the investigation found unanimously:

“(a) In origin, nature, structure and general conduct, the Franco regime is a Fascist regime patterned on, and established largely as a result of aid received from Hitler's Nazi Germany and Mussolini's Fascist Italy.

"(b) During the long struggle of the United Nations against Hitler and Mussolini, Franco, despite continued Allied protests, gave very substantial aid to the enemy Powers. First, for example, from 1941 to 1945, the Blue Infantry Division, the Spanish Legion of Volunteers and the Salvador Air Squadron fought against Soviet Russia on the Eastern front. Second, in the summer of 1940, Spain seized Tangier in breach of international statute, and as a result of Spain maintaining a large army in Spanish Morocco large numbers of Allied troops were immobilized in North Africa.

"(c) Incontrovertible documentary evidence establishes that Franco was a guilty party with Hitler and Mussolini in the conspiracy to wage war against those countries which eventually in the course of the world war became banded together as the United Nations. It was part of the conspiracy that Franco's full belligerency should be postponed until a time to be mutually agreed upon.” THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

CONVINCED that the Franco Fascist Government of Spain, which was imposed by force upon the Spanish people with the aid of the Axis Powers and which gave material assistance to the Axis Powers in the war, does not represent the Spanish people, and by its continued control of Spain is making impossible the participation of the Spanish people with the peoples of the United Nations in international affairs;

RECOMMENDS that the Franco Government of Spain be debarred from membership in international agencies established by or brought

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into relationship with the United Nations, and from participation in conference or other activities which may be arranged by the United Nations or by these agencies, until a new and acceptable government is formed in Spain.

FURTHER DESIRING to secure the participation of all peace-loving peoples, including the people of Spain, in the community of nations,

RECOMMENDS that if, within a reasonable time, there is not established a government which derives its authority from the consent of the governed, committed to respect freedom of speech, religion and assembly and to the prompt holding of an election in which the Spanish people, free from force and intimidation and regardless of party, may express their will, the Security Council consider the adequate measures to be taken in order to remedy the situation;

RECOMMENDS that all Members of the United Nations immediately recall from Madrid their ambassadors and ministers plenipotentiary accredited there.

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY FURTHER RECOMMENDS that the States Members of the Organization report to the Secretary-General and to the next session of the Assembly what action they have taken in accordance with this recommendation.

Treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa

[This resolution requests the Government of India and the Government of the Union of South Africa to report at the next session of the General Assembly the measures adopted to assure that the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa is in conformity with the international obligations under the agreements concluded between the two Governments and with the Charter. The resolution was adopted by the General Assembly on December 8, 1946 by a vote of 32 to 15, with 7 abstentions. The United States voted in the negative, favoring instead a proposal to refer the question whether any international obligations were involved to the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion. An amendment to this effect failed to receive the necessary majority in the General Assembly.)

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THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

Having taken note of the application made by the Government of India regarding the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa, and having considered the matter:

1. STATES that, because of that treatment, friendly relations between the two Member States have been impaired, and unless a satis

factory settlement is reached, these relations are likely to be further impaired;

2. Is OF THE OPINION that the treatment of Indians in the Union should be in conformity with the international obligations under the agreements concluded between the two Governments and the relevant provisions of the Charter;

3. THEREFORE REQUESTS the two Governments to report at the next session of the General Assembly the measures adopted to this effect.

World Shortage of Cereals and Other Foodstuffs [This resolution requests the Members to take certain steps to alleviate world food shortages in 1947 and to facilitate the equitable allocation and prompt distribution of available food supplies. The General Assembly unanimously approved the resolution on December 11, 1946.]

At its thirty-third plenary meeting on 14 February 1946, the General Assembly adopted a resolution urging action both directly by Governments and through the international organizations concerned, to alleviate the anticipated serious shortage of bread-grains and rice.

The General Assembly has learned with satisfaction of the extent to which the position in 1946 was improved, particularly with respect to bread-grains, by the common effort of the United Nations, thus saving millions of lives during the critical months before the 1946 harvest.

The General Assembly recognizes, however, that the food situation is still unsatisfactory. A number of countries have not yet overcome the devastating results of the enemy occupation to which they were subjected and are obliged on this account to continue emergency imports of grains, fats and other foodstuffs. A severe shortage of these foodstuffs exists in many European countries, even in some of those which before the war were themselves exporters. In a number of countries of Asia the shortage of cereals and other foodstuffs has led to undernourishment and even famine, resulting in heavy loss of human lives, as in the case of India and China. There is also a widespread shortage of livestock.

The General Assembly notes, moreover, that in 1945 and 1946 some countries of Europe and Asia were affected by drought and bad harvest, resulting in still further deterioration of their food situation. Some countries which were not under enemy occupation have even introduced bread rationing for the first time, for instance, the United Kingdom. In addition, some countries of Latin America are experiencing food shortages and are obliged to import grain.

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