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LX. Sahaptin or Nez-percées' (polysynthetic) :-Taitinapan : ? T'likatat : ? Walla-walla.

LXI. Nūtka or Yucuatl (polysynthetic) :-Makah : Tlaoquatsh. LXII. Appalachian (Florida) (polysynthetic) :

-Natchez : Muskogee or Creek Indian: Choctaw :' Cherokee (Cheroki) or Chilake.

LXIII. Pawnee (Pani) or Riccaree® (polysynthetic).

LXIV. Dakota (Dacotah), spoken by the Sioux or Issáti (polysynthetic):' Iowa or Sac:* Winnebago: Osage.

LXV. Iroquois (polysynthetic):-Onondago : ' Seneca: Oneida : Mohawk : Cayuga : Tuscarora : Nottoway.

1“Contributions to N. A. Ethnology” (1877); Bancroft: “Native Races,” iii. pp. 621-5.

2 Vocabulary in “American Ethnology,” vol. ii. ; grammatical notes in Bancroft: I. c. iii. 610-12.

3 Brinton: “ On the Language of the Natchez,” in the “Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society," xiii. (5th Dec. 1873).

Byington: “Grammar of the Choctaw Language” (1870), edited by Brinton.

Jonathan Edwards : Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians,” edited by Pickering (1823); “ Cherokee Primer” (Park Hill, Arkansas, 2nd edit. 1846). For the native syllabary invented by Segwoya (George Guess) in 1820, see Faulmann: “ Das Buch der Schrift ” (1878), p. 12.

* See W. Matthews: “Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians” (1877). [Classed with the Caddo of Texas by Latham.]

Riggs: “Grammar and Dictionary of the Dacota Language (Smithson. Inst.) (1851); H. C. von der Gabelentz: Grammatik der Dakota-Sprache” (1852); Pond : “Dakota Reading-book,” (1842).

Hamilton and Irwin : “An Iowa Grammar, illustrating the principles of the language used by the Iowa, Otoe, and Missour Indians” (1848).

• Shea: "Dictionnaire Français-Onontaguè " (with grammar), in Shea's “ Library of Amer. Linguistics," i. (1859).

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LXVI. Algonquin' (polysynthetic) :-Cree : ? Ottawa: Ojibway or Chippeway: (4 dialects): † Mohican, or Mohegan, or Pequot : Micmac or Miramichi (including Acadian and Gaspesian):* Shawnee : Blackfoot: LeniLenape or Delaware: Abenaki : + Narragansets:' | Natick or Massachusetts.

LXVII. Athapaskan or Tinneh' (polysynthetic) :(1). Athapaskan proper, or Chippewyan (dialects of

the Hare, Dogrib, Yellow-knife, and Copper

mine Indians): Sarsee : Tacallie. (2). Tinneh :-Qualhioqua: Owillapsh: Tlatskanai :

Umkwa : Tūtūten : Hūpah. (3). Apache : * Navajo : Lipanes.

1 Fr. Müller: "Der grammatische Bau der Algonkinsprachen" (1867); Cf. Du Ponceau: “ Mémoire sur le Système grammatical des Langues de quelques nations indiennes de l'Amérique” (1838), pp. 207, sq.

2 Howse : “Grammar of the Cree Language" (1805). (For the native syllabary of the Crees and Tinnehs, see Faulmann: "Das Buch der Schrift,” p. 11.]

3 Schoolcraft: "Ethnological Researches concerning the Red Man of America,” iv. pp. 385-396 ; Edwin James: “Chippeway First Lessons in spelling and reading” (undated); Baraga : “A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language" (1850). * Maillard: “Grammar of the Micmac Language" (1864).

Roger Williams : "A Key to the Languages of America” (1643).

John Eliot : “The Indian Grammar Begun,” reprinted by Pickering, in Second Ser, of “ Collections of the Mass. Hist. Soc.” (1832), ix. pp. 223-312, and i.-liv.

? Buschmann: “Der athapaskische Sprachstamm” (1856), and “Ueber die Verwandtschaft der Kinai-Idiome mit dem grossen Athapaskischen Sprachstamme,” in the “Monatsberichte d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. in Berlin ” (1854), pp. 231, sq. [The Tinnehs have a native syllabary.]

& Grammar in Bancroft: l. c. iii. pp. 596-601.

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(4). Tinneh or Atnah dialects in Alaska :-3 Western :

7 Eastern : 10 Kutchin dialects (2 extinct).' [Tinneh or Atnah is called Kolshina by the

Russians.] LXVIII. T'linket? (polysynthetic) :(1). Yakūtat. (2). Chilkāht-kwān: Sitkā-kwān: Stākhin-kwān. (3). Kygāhni. (4). Nass: Chimsyān.' (5). Kolush. LXIX. Aleutian or Unăngủn' (polysynthetic) :

(a). Eastern or Unalashkan.

(3). Western or Atkan. LXX. Eskimo (Esquimaux) or Innuit' (polysynthetic) : (1). Western Eskimo (N. W. America and North

East Asia) (a). West Mackenzie Innuit ; (6).
Western Innuit: (c). Fishing Innuit: (d). South

Eastern Innuit.8
I“ Contributions to North American Ethnology,” vol. i. pp. 24-

. 40 (1877).

?" Contributions to N. A. Ethnol.,” p. 40, pp. III-114 (Grammar by G. Gibbs), pp. 121, sq.

“Contrib.,” &c. pp. 155-6. • Buschmann: “Die Pima-Sprache und die Sprache der Koloschen" (1857).

s Wenjaminoff: “ Opyt grammatiki Aleutsko-lisjevskago jazika” (S. Petersburg, 1846); “ Contributions to North Amer. Ethnol.," pp. 22-24.

Grammatical Notes in “ Contributions,” &c., pp. 115, 116. Kleinschmidt: “Grammatik der grönländischen Sprache” (1851). • “Contributions to N. A. Ethnol.” pp. 9-24 ; Grammatical Notes in Bancroft: “ Native Races,” iii. pp. 576-77; Veniaminoff:“Ueber die Sprachen der russischen Amer.” in Erman's "Archiv,” vii. i. pp.

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126, sq.

(2). Eastern Eskimo or Greenlandish or Karali. (3). Arctic Highlanders. LXXI. American Chukchi.' LXXII. Asiatic Chukchi and Koriak (agglutinative)." LXXIII. Yukhagir or Andondommi (agglutinative).'

LXXIV. Yenissei-Ostiak and Kott (Khotowski) or Kanski (agglutinative).*

LXXV. Unclassified island-languages = (1). Mergui Archipelago languages. (2). (?) Andaman languages. [See under XXXVII.] (3). Nicobar languages,' &c. &c. &c.

LXXVI. Micronesian (agglutinative) :-Gilbert Islands : * Ponape :' Ladrone : Yap: Marshall Islands (Ebon): Tobi.

1 “ Contributions,” &c., pp. 12-14.

2 Radloff in “ Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg," vii. pp. 382, sq. (1851).

Schiefner in the “Bulletin de l'Académie impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg" (1859).

* Castrén: “Versuch einer jenissei-ostjakischen und kottischen Sprachlehre" (1858).

• De Roepstorff gives a vocabulary of five dialects (Calcutta, 1875).

Hale in “ United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-42, vol. vii.

? Gulick: “Grammar and Vocabulary of the Ponape Language," in the “ Journal of the American Oriental Society,” x. (1872).

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CHAPTER VII.

THE INFLECTIONAL FAMILIES OF SPEECH.

“Si nous connaissons la langue des Aryas telle qu'elle existait vers le moment de leur dispersion finale, et sans doute déjà divisée en dialectes, nous pourrions y retrouver avec beaucoup de sûreté l'histoire de leur développement antérieur dans ses phases successives."- PICTET.

PROPHETS and preachers have never been weary of denouncing the innate vanity and deceitfulness of the human heart, but their success hitherto has been but scanty. It is difficult, if not impossible, to see ourselves with the eyes of others, to measure truly our own importance and that of the society in which we live. It is only the historian of a' later age that can calmly and impartially trace the causes and effects of the events which have marked a particular era ; the actors themselves, as well as those who live near the same epoch, behold everything through a blurred and distorted medium, wherein the true proportions of things are altogether lost. The greatest of thinkers have never been able to free themselves wholly from the prejudices and habits of their time: Aristotle could not conceive of a state of society in which slavery did not exist; and Lord Bacon, like his contemporary Raleigh, still retained a lingering belief in astrology, even saying that "comets without doubt have power over the gross and mass of things." We are apt

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