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X. Eve (agglutinative) :-Eve: Yoruba : Oji or Ashanti : Fanti or Inta : Ga or Akra.' XI. Nubian (agglutinative) (a). Fulah or Poul dialects (Futatoro, Futajallo,

Bondu, Sokoto)." (3). Nuba dialects (Tumale, Nubi, Dongolawi, Kol

dagi, Konjara). (v). Wakuafi: Masai.' XII. Ibo (agglutinative) :-Ibo : Nupe.”

XIII. Nile Group (agglutinative) :-Barea : Bari :
Dinka : Nuer: Shilluk..
XIV. & XV. Unclassified Negro-languages :-

(a). Isolating :-Mbafu : Maba : Michi.
(3). Agglutinative :— Musgu : Batta: Logone : Ba-

ghirmi."

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1 Schlegel : "Schlüssel zur Ewe-Sprache” (1857); Bowen: “Grammar and Dict. of the Yoruba Language” (Smithsonian Inst. 1858); Crowther: Grammar and Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language, with Introductory Remarks by O. E. Vidal” (1852); Riis : “Elemente des Akwapim-Dialektes der Odschi-Sprache" (1853) : Zimmermann: “A Grammatical Sketch of the Akra- or Ga-Language, with an Appendix on the Adamme-dialect” (1858); Christaller: “Grammar of the Asante and Fante language" (1876).

2 Macbrair: Grammar of the Fulah Language" (1854); Faidherbe in the “ Revue de Linguistique et de philologie comparée," vii. pp. 195, seq. (1875).

3 Tutschek in the “Gelehrte Anzeigen der k. bayer. Akademie der Wissenschaften,” xxv. p. 729, seq.

* Krapf: “Vocabulary of the Enguduk Eloikob, spoken by the Masai in East Africa” (1857).

5 Schön: “Oku Ibo, Grammatical Elements of the Ibo Language" (1861).

Mitterutzner: “Die Dinka-Sprache in Central-Afrika" (1866); and “Die Sprache der Bari in Central-Afrika” (1867); F. Müller : “ Die Sprache der Bari” (1864); Reinisch: “ Die Barea-Sprache” (1874).

See Barth : “Sammlung central-afrikanischer Vocabularien” (1862-6).

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XVI. Hamitic (inflectional)

(a). † Old Egyptian :' | Coptic.?
(3). Sub-Semitic or Libyan: Numidian:' | Guan-

ches of Canaries :" Berber, Kabyle, Tama

shek, &c.
(,). Ethiopian : Beja, Denkâli, Somâli, Galla, Agaü,

Saho.5
XVII. Semitic (inflectional) :-

(«). Northern : † Assyro-Babylonian ;' † Phænico

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Brugsch: “Hieroglyphische Grammatik” (1872), and “Grammaire démotique” (1855) ; Le Page Renouf : “An Elementary Manual of the Egyptian Language” (1876).

Schwartze : "Koptische Grammatik” (1850); Revillout in “Mélanges d’Archéologie Egyptienne et Assyrienne,” ii. 2, 3, iii. 1, (1875-6); F. Rossi: “Grammatica Copto-Geroglifica” (1878).

See Pritchard : “Researches into the Physical History of Mankind,” iii. 2, 2, p. 32 ; and De Macedo in the “Journal of the Royal Geographical Society,” 1841, pp. 171-183.

Hanoteau: “Essai de Grammaire Kabyle" (1858); and “Essai de Grammaire de la Langue Tamachek” (1860); Faidherbe : “ Collection complète des Inscriptions numidiques,” in the “Mémoires de la Société des Sciences, etc., de Lille,” viii. p. 361 (1870).

5 Isenberg: “A small Vocabulary of the Dankali Language (1840); Tutschek : “A Dictionary and Grammar of the Galla Language” (1845); Halévy : “Essai sur la Langue agaou” (1874); Munzinger : "Ost-Afrikanische Studien ” (1864); Prätorius in the “Z. D. M. G.” xxiv. (1870); Pott in the “ Z. D. M. G.” xxiii. (1869).

Renan: “Histoire des Langues sémitiques” (2nd edit. 1858); Castell: “ Lexicon Heptaglotton” (1669).

Oppert: “Grammaire assyrienne," 2nd edit. (1868) ; Sayce : “An Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes” (1872), “An Elementary Assyrian Grammar and Reading-book," 2nd edit. (1876), and “The Tenses of the Assyrian Verb,” in the "J. R. A. S.” Jan. 1877 ; Schrader: “Die assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften,” in the “ Z. D. M. G.” xxvi. 1, 2 (1872).

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Hebrew ;' † Punic; Samaritan ;Aramaic (t Chaldee, † Syriac, † Mandaite, Neo

Syriac). (©). Southern : † Gheez (Ethiopic);* Amharic;'

Tigre (Tigrina) ;Harari ;? | Himyaritic (Sabean); 8 Mehri;' † Ehkili ; ' Arabic ;? + Sinaitic;" † Safa ; Maltese. 3

. 1 Gesenius: “Hebrew Grammar," edit. by Rödiger (Engl. trans. 1869); Ewald : “Ausführliches Lehrbuch der hebräischen Sprache des Alten Bundes,” 8th edit. 1870; Olshausen : “Lehrbuch der hebräischen Sprache” (1861); Land : “Principles of Hebrew Grammar” (transl. by Poole, 1876); Schröder: “Die Phönizische Sprache” (1869); Driver: “Use of the Tenses in Hebrew” (1874).

2 Petermann: “Brevis linguæ Samaritanæ grammatica” (1873); Nichols: “ Grammar of the Samaritan Language" (1859); Uhlemann: "Institutiones Linguæ Samaritanæ" (1837). Merx: “Grammatica Syriaca" (1867-70); Hoffmann:

Grammatica Syriaca” (1827); Uhlemann: “Grammatik der syrischen Sprache” (2nd edit. 1857); Nöldeke: “ Grammatik der neu-syrischen Sprache am Urmia-See und Kurdistan” (1868), and “Mandäische Grammatik” (1875). Ludolf: “Grammatica Æthiopica” (1661); Dillmann:

Grammatik der aethiopischen Sprache" (1857); Schrader: “De lingua

“ Æthiopica cum cognatis linguis comparata" (1860).

5 Isenberg : “Grammar of the Amharic Language (1842); Massaja: "Lectiones grammaticales pro missionariis qui addiscere volunt linguam Amaricam” (1867). * Praetorius: “Grammatik der Tigrinasprache" (1871-2).

Praetorius in “ Z. D. M. G.” xxiii. (1869).

Prideaux: “A Sketch of Sabean Grammar" in the “Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archæology," v. 1, 2 (1877). • Von Maltzan in “Z. D. M. G.” xxvii. 3 (1873).

Wright : “Arabic Grammar," 2nd edit. (1874-6); De Sacy: “Grammaire arabe," 2nd edit. (1831); Ewald: “Grammatica critica linguæ Arabicæ" (1832).

Beer: “Inscriptiones veteres Litteris et Lingua huc usque incognitis ad montem Sinai servatæ" (1840-3); Tuch in the “Z. D. M. G.” xiv. (1849).

Halévy in the “Z. D. M.G.” xxxii. 1. (1878).
Schlienz: On the Maltese Language" (1838).

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XVIII. Aryan or Indo-European (infectional) ? :(a). Indian Group : + Sanskrit ;' + Prakrit;' + Pali,

Singalese or Elu" (see under DRAVIDIAN); modern vernaculars (Bengalese, Assamese, Oriya, Nepaulese, Kashmirian, Scindhi, Punjâbi, Brahui, Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi, Hindustani); ' Siyâh-pôsh-Kafir;* Dard ;' Rom

many (Gipsy), with 13 European dialects. Bopp: “Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Lithauischen, Altslavischen, Gothischen und Deutschen” (1833-52, 3rd edit. 1868-70; English translation by Eastwick from the first edit. 1845); Schleicher: “Compendium der vergleichend. Grammatik der indo-germanischen Sprachen" (1861, 3rd edit. 1871; English translation by Bendall, 1874).

• Benfey : “Handbuch der Sanskritsprache” (1852-54); Max Müller : "A Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners," and edit. (1870); Monier Williams: “Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language," 3rd edit. (1864); Delbrück: "Das altindische Verbum” (1874).

* Lassen: “Institutiones linguæ Pracriticæ" (1837).

" Kuhn: Beiträge zur Pali-Grammatik (1875); Minayeff : "Grammaire Pâlie” (1874); Carter: “Lesson-book of Singhalese, on Ollendorf's System” (1873); Lambrick: “Sinhalese Grammar” (1834).

• Cust: “A Sketch of the modern Languages of the East Indies” (1878); Beames: “A Comparative Grammar of the modern Aryan Languages of India” (1872); Forbes: “A Grammar of the Bengali Language” (1862); Sutton : "An Introductory Grammar of the Oriya Language” (1831); Trumpp: “Grammar of the Sindhi Language” (1872); “A Grammar of the Panjabi Language" (Lodiana, 1851); Yates: “ Introduction to the Hindustani Language” (1845); Garcin de Tassy : “Rudiments de la Langue hindoui” (1847); Shapurji Edalji: “A Grammar of the Gujarati Language" (1867); “ The Student's Manual of Marathi Grammar” (Bombay, 1868).

Trumpp in “Z. D. M. G.” xx. (1866).
Leitner: “Results of a Tour in Dardistan” (1868).

Pott: “Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien” (1844-5); Paspati: “ Études sur les Tchinghiares ” (1870); Miklosich : “Ueber die Mundarten und Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's(1872-77); Ascoli: "Zigeunerisches" (1865).

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(3). Iranian Group: † Old Persian (Achæmenian);'

† Pahlavi ;Parsi ;| Neo-Persian ;* Kurdish;: Beluchi ;* † Zend (Old Baktrian); Pukhtu (Afghan);* Ossetian. Armenian

is generally included in this group. (~). Keltic Group: Insular (Welsh, Cornish, Breton,"

Irish, Manx, Scotch); [Continental (7Gaulish)." (©). Italian Group: † Umbrian;"? | Oscan; 13 | Latin;"

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Spiegel : “ Die altpersischen Keilinschriften” (1862); Kossowicz: “ Inscriptiones Palæo-Persicæ” (1872).

2 Spiegel: “Grammatik der Huzvâresch-Sprache” (1856); Haug: “An old Pahlavi-Pazend Glossary” (1870).

3 Spiegel: “Grammatik der Parsi-Sprache” (1851).
4 Vullers: “Grammatica linguæ Persicæ" (2nd edit. 1870).

5 Friedrich Müller : “ Beiträge zur Kenntniss der neupersischen Dialekte" in the “Sitzungberichte der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien,” xlvi. and xlviii. (1864-65); Garzoni: “Grammatica e Vocabulario della lingua Kurda" (1787); Chodzko: “Études philologiques sur la Langue Kurde” (1857).

See Mockler's Grammar of the Mekráni dialect (London, 1877).

Justi: “ Handbuch der Zendsprache” (1864); Hovelacque : “Grammaire de la Langue zende” (1872); Haug: “Essays on the Parsis," edit. by West, in Trübner's “ Oriental Series" (1878); Bartholomae : “ Das altiranische Verbum” (1878); Hübschmann, in Kuhn's “Zeitschrift,” xxiv. 4 (1878).

Trumpp: “Grammar of the Pashto, or Language of the Arghans” (1873).

Sjögren: Ossetische Sprachlehre” (1844).

Petermann: “Grammatica linguæ Armeniacæ" (1837); Hübschmann, in Kuhn's “ Zeitschrift,” xxiii. 1, 3 (1877); Cirbied: “Grammaire de la Langue arménienne" (1823).

Zeuss: “Grammatica Celtica” (2nd edit. 1871); Rhýs: “Lectures on Welsh Philology” (2nd edit. 1879).

12 Aufrecht and Kirchhoff: “Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmäler” (1849-51); Bréal: “Les Tables Engubines” (1875).

13 Bruppacher : “Oskische Lautlehre” (1869); Enderis: “Versuch einer Formenlehre der oskischen Sprache ” (1871).

14 Corssen : “Ueber Ausprache, Vokalismus und Betonung der

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