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expression of the highest spiritual wants and feelings of man, became finally disunited and disuniting. Diplomacy, indeed, the one attempt to harmonize the rival members of “the European family," had its common speech; but diplomacy was powerless against the stronger passions which were shaping the Europe of a later day. Now, however, there are signs that religion is at last ceasing to be an element of disunion, and becoming instead a bond of sympathy and common action among all educated men. The mischievous cry of nationalities, which found support in the crude and misunderstood theories of immature philology, is dying away; we are coming to perceive that language and race are not synonymous terms, and that language is but the expression of social life. Whatever makes for the unity and solidarity of society makes equally for the unity and solidarity of language. The decaying dialects of the world may be fostered and wakened into artificial life for a time; but the stimulus soon disappears, and the natural laws of profit and loss regain their sway. By clearing away old prejudices and misconceptions, by explaining the life of language and the laws which direct its growth and decay, the science of speech is silently preparing the ground for the unhindered operation of those tendencies and movements which are even now changing the Babel of the primæval world into the “Saturnia regna " of the future, when there will be a universal language and a universal law. Genius is predictive, and the outlines of a philosophical language which Leibnitz designed, and the universal language


which Bishop Wilkins actually composed,' may after all be something more than the ideal of a literary enthusiast or the dream of an unpractical philosopher.

1 “Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language” (1668). See Max Müller's analysis in “ Lectures on the Science of Language,” ii. pp. 50-65.

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The Science of Language. K. W. Heyse : System der Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin, 1856. E. Renan : De l'Origine du Langage. Paris, 1858. F. Max Müller : Lectures on the Science of Language. London,

1861-4 (8th edition 1875). R. Latham : Elements of Comparative Philology. London, 1862. W. D. Whitney : Language and the Study of Language. London, 1867 (Enlarged German translation by Jolly, Munich, 1874).

Life and Growth of Language. London, 1875. G. Curtius : Sprache, Sprachen und Völker. Leipzig, 1868. Aug. Boltz : Die Sprache und ihr Leben. Offenbach am Main,

1868. H. Steinthal : Der Ursprung der Sprache. Berlin, 1858.

Charakteristik der hauptsächlichsten Typen des Sprachbaues. Berlin, 1860.

Abriss der Sprachwissenschaft I. Berlin, 1871. L. Benlæw: Aperçu général de la Science comparative des Langues.

Paris, 1872. J. Braun : Die Ergebnisse der Sprachwissenschaft in populärer

Darstellung. Cassel, 1872. D. Pezzi : Introduction à l'Etude de la Science du Langage

(French translation by V. Nourrisson). Paris, 1875. An excel

lent abstract of the subject. A. Hovelacque : La Linguistique. Paris, 1876. (Translated into

English under the title of “Science of Language,” by A. H.

Keane. London. 1877. J. Peile : Philology. London, 1877. Fr. Müller : Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. Vienna, 1876-9. A. F. Pott : W. von Humboldt ueber die Verschiedenheiten des menschlichen Sprachbaues. With an introduction. Berlin, 1876. See also the introductions to Pott : Etymologische Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der indo-germanischen Sprachen. LemgoDetmold, 1833-36 (2nd edition, 1859-73).

Critical. A. H. Sayce : Principles of Comparative Philology. London, 1874 (2nd edition, 1875).

Comparative Aryan Philology. F. Bopp: Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen,

Lateinischen, Litauischen, Gothischen und Deutschen. Berlin, 1833-52 ; 2nd and enlarged edition, 1857-61 (translated into

French with valuable introductions by Bréal, Paris, 1866-72). A. Schleicher : Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der

indo-germanischen Sprachen. Weimar, 1861-60 (3rd edition, 1870. Translated into English by H. Bendall. London, 1874).

4th edition, 1876. W. Scherer : Zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Berlin, 1868,

2nd edition, 1878. F. G. Eichhoff : Grammaire générale indo-européenne. Paris,

1867. G. I. Ascoli : Corsi di glottologia. Vol. i. Turin and Florence,

1870. G. Curtius : Zur Chronologie der indo-germanischen Sprachfor

schung. Leipzig, 1867 (2nd edition, 1873) (translated into

French by Bergaigne. Paris, 1869). A. Fick : Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen. Göttingen, 1874 (3rd edition, 1876).

Die ehemalige Spracheinheit der Indogermanen Europas. Göttingen, 1873.

Die griechischen Personennamen. Göttingen, 1874. R. Westphal : Vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen

Sprachen. Jena, 1873. J. Schmidt : Zur Geschichte des indogermanischen Vocalismus.

Weimar, 1871-75. F. de Saussure : Mémoire sur le Système primitif des Voyelles dans

les Langues indo-européennes. (Leipzig, 1878. Saussure represents Brugman’s az by A which generally appears as a in Greek and Latin, as in cado and Aadkiv, but in Slavonic and German becomes a, (Greek and Latin o). Long ă is analyzed into a, (e) + A (a) or a, (0) +Α; βαμα : βωμός = κέρμα : κορμός. Every root contains a, which may be changed into az; and every weakening of a syllable implies the dropping of a,. The a sound, which does not essentially differ from A, and appears in Sanskrit as i or i, under certain circumstances combines with a preceding i, u, or vocalized r, n, and m to lengthen these latter sounds.) [See also H. Osthoff in Kuhn's “Zeitschrift,” 24. 4 (1878), pp. 417-426. Osthoff denies that either e or o has been developed in Greek out of the sonant nasal or vocalized n, and endeavours to explain away contrary instances. Nevertheless, it would seem that € really does sometimes take the place of å in such cases. Osthoff shows that while an original unaccented sonant nasal is represented in Greek by ă (év) and in Gothic by un, an accented one is represented by ã (av) in Greek and in (as in the German sind) in Teutonic. The two forms of the sonant nasal are not distinguished in the other European Aryan languages.] A. Ludwig : Agglutination oder Adaptation ? Prague, 1873. B. P. Hasdeu : Principie de Filologiả comparativă Ario-Europea.

Vol. i. (Istoria Filologiei comparative). Bucarest, 1875. See Kuhn's Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. Berlin, from 1851.

Kuhn's Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung. Berlin, from 1858.

Bezzenberger's Beiträge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Göttingen, from 1877.

Hovelacque's Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie comparée. Paris, from 1868.

Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris. Paris, from 1868.

The Proceedings and Transactions of the Philological Society. London, from 1842.

Benfey's Orient und Occident. Göttingen, from 1862.

The Transactions of the American Philological Association, from 1868.

Sematology. A. Chaignet : La Philosophie de la Science du Langage étudiée

dans la Formation des Mots. Paris, 1875. (To be read with caution.)

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