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WOODROW WILSON, Twenty-seventh President of the United States

I believe in democracy because it releases the energies of every human being. CALVIN COOLIDGE, Twenty-ninth President of the United States

Whether one traces his Americanism back three centuries to the Mayflower or three years to the steerage is not half so important as whether his Americanism of today is real and genuine. HERBERT HOOVER, Thirtieth President of the United States

Who may define liberty? It is far more than independence of a nation. It is not a catalog of political “rights.”. Liberty is a thing of the spirit—to be free to worship, to think, to hold opinions, and to speak without fearfree to challenge wrong and oppression with surety of justice. Liberty conceives that the mind and spirit of men can be free only if the individual is free to choose his own calling, to develop his talents, to win and to keep a home sacred from intrusion, to rear children in ordered security. It holds he must be free to earn, spend, to save, to accumulate property that may give protection in old age and to loved ones. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, Thirty-first President of the United States

Those priceless rights, guaranteed under the Constitution, have been the source of our happiness from our very beginnings as a nation. We have been accustomed to take them as a matter of course. Now, however, when we see other nations challenging those liberties, it behooves us to exercise that eternal vigilance which now, as always, is the price of liberty. No matter what comes we must preserve our national birthright; liberty of conscience and of education, of the press and of free assembly, and equal justice to all under the law.

As a free people we must defend our dearly won heritage of freedom against all assaults. HARRY S. TRUMAN, Thirty-second President of the United States

There is no more precious possession today than United States citizenship. A nation is no stronger than its citizenry. With many problems facing us daily in this perplexing and trying era, it is vital that we have a unity of purpose_to the end that freedom, justice, and opportunity, good will, and happiness may be assured ourselves and peoples everywhere. Dwight D. EISENHOWER, Thirty-third President of the United States

We must unitedly and intelligently support the principles of Americanism. Effective support of principle-like success in battle-requires calm and clear judgment, courage, faith, fortitude. Our dedication to truth and freedom, at home and abroad, does not require—and cannot tolerate-fear, threat, hysteria and intimidation.

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As we preach freedom to others, so we should practice it among ourselves. Then, strong in our own integrity, we will be continuing the revolutionary march of the founding fathers. *

Truth can make men free! And where men are free to plan their lives, to govern themselves, to know the truth and to understand their fellow men, we believe that there also is the will to live at peace.

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Chapter 3

Statements by

CHIEF JUSTICES OF UNITED STATES

JOHN JAY,' First Chief Justice of the United States

This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence, that an inheritance 80 proper and convenient for a band of brethren, united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties.

Similar sentiments have hitherto prevailed among all orders and denomi. nations of men among us. To all general purposes we have uniformly been one people; each individual citizen everywhere enjoying the same national rights, privileges, and protection. John MARSHALL,2 Fourth Chief Justice of the United States

When the government is drawn from the people and depends on the people for its continuance, oppressive measures will not be attempted, as they will certainly draw on their authors the resentment of those on whom they depend. On this government, thus depending on ourselves for its existence, I will rest my safety. ROGER BROOKE TANEY,' Fifth Chief Justice of the United States

The object and end of all government is to promote the happiness and prosperity of the community by which it is established; and it can never be assumed that the government intended to diminish its power of accomplishing the end for which it was created. MORRISON REMICH WAITE,' Seventh Chief Justice of the United States

The equality of the rights of citizens is a principle of republicanism. Every republican government is in duty bound to protect all its citizens in the enjoyment of this principle, if within its power.

* Excerpt from paper appearing in the Federalist on "The New Constitution.” 'Excerpt from speech delivered in 1788. John MARSHALL by Allan B. Magruder. MARSHALL AND TANEY. P. 226. By Ben W. Palmer. * CHIEF JUSTICE WAITE. p. 168. By Bruce R. Trimble.

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MELVILLE WESTON FULLER, ' Eighth Chief Justice of the United States

To be an American was to be part and parcel of American ideas, insti. tutions, prosperity, and progress. It was to be like-minded with the patriotic leaders who have served the cause of their native or adopted land, from Washington to Lincoln. It was to be convinced of the virtues of republican government as the bulwark of the true and genuine liberties of mankind, which would ultimately transmute suffering through ignorance into happiness through light. CHARLES Evans HUGHES, Eleventh Chief Justice of the United States

This flag means more than association and reward. It is the symbol of our national unity, our national endeavor, our national aspiration. It tells you of the struggle for independence, of union preserved, of liberty and union one and inseparable, of the sacrifices of brave men and women to whom the ideals and honor of this nation have been dearer than life.

It means America first; it means an undivided allegiance. It means that you cannot be saved by the valor and devotion of your ancestors; that to each generation comes its patriotic duty; and that upon your willingness to sacrifice and endure as those before you have sacrificed and endured rests the national hope.

It speaks of equal rights; of the inspiration of free institutions exemplified and vindicated; of liberty under law intelligently conceived and impartially administered. There is not a thread in it but scorns self-indulgence, weakness, and rapacity. It is eloquent of our common destiny. HARLAN FISKE STONE,? Twelfth Chief Justice of the United States

I am proud of our legal institutions and have unwavering faith that their future will be even greater than their past. In our legal system lies the assurance of protection of our lives, liberty, property, and happiness, and that of our children and children's children. No more sacred duty rests on the lawyer and layman alike than that of defending, maintaining, and improving it. FRED M. VINSON, Thirteenth Chief Justice of the United States

We need, first of all, to reaffirm our faith in the fundamental values upon which has been based all that is worthwhile in our society. We need to revitalize our conviction that that society is best which gives the greatest practical recognition to the dignity of individual man and which affords

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Excerpt from address delivered in 1889. 132 U. S. 726. • Excerpt from speech made in 1916.

Excerpt from LAW AND ITS ADMINISTRATION. By Harlan Fiske Stone.

Excerpt from address delivered before the annual meeting of the American Bar Association, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 22, 1947.

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