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he will bear arms or perform noncombatant service or work of national importance, if required by law, for his adopted country. In essence, he begins life anew in the land of his adoption. Strong emotions must stir his soul as he renounces his native land—the home of his childhood, of his parents, and of his friends—and surrenders the flag of his native country for that of another. But the new allegiance, so assumed, does not and should not be considered to cut off the ties of friendship and love that bind the new citizen to his family, friends, and memories, as distinguished from the

political allegiance that is forever cut asunder.

The simple words conveying citizenship take on a deeper meaning today than ever before. Many take this oath with tears of gratitude. They are joining the great family of citizens enjoying the cherished principles of freedom. They are pledging themselves to a great ideal, and are purposing to do their bit to sustain and uphold that ideal. They are becoming a part of this nation just as the nation becomes a part of them. They are coming into a heritage; they are being granted a privilege; they are being offered an opportunity.

ADDRESS TO NEW CITIZENS

Like the oath of allegiance, the address to the new citizens should be impressive and inspirational, a fitting climax to the naturalization proceedings.

Long before the passage by Congress of the joint resolution directing that: “Either at the time of the rendition of the decree of naturalization, or at such other time as the judge may fix, the judge or someone designated by him shall address the newly naturalized citizens upon the form and genius of our government and the privi. leges and responsibilities of citizenship,” judges, or others desig. nated by them, delivered these addresses in many Federal and State courts. In fact it was the beneficial results of these addresses that partly inspired the inclusion of the clause in the resolution designed to make the address a part of the procedure in every naturalization court. When and where the address should be delivered, by whom, and the type of address, were properly left by Congress to the judge of the court.

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Generally addresses are delivered in the courtroom, although occasionally they are delivered sometime later in a ceremony honoring new citizens. The judge, or a guest, or both deliver an address.

Decision as to who should deliver the address was wisely left to the discretion of the individual judge. The judge is, and rightly should be, the one who is responsible for final naturalization. He is familiar with local conditions and practices and should be able to decide whether or not it is desirable that an outstanding citizen from a legal, educational, patriotic, religious, or other organization make the address to the naturalization class.

The practice of having an outside speaker is followed by many judges with apparent success. In some instances, perhaps, an outside speaker, such as a notable foreign-born citizen of the United States, can more effectively convey the significance of that citizenship. In other instances, undoubtedly the better medium for such expression is the judge himself.

Sometimes the address is delivered before the taking of the oath and sometimes afterwards. Quite frequently the oath itself forms the basis for the address. Some judges consider this an excellent time to explain the meaning of the oath and to dissipate any erroneous ideas concerning it. The opportunity is provided to give the new citizens a clearer conception of what is required in the renunciation of allegiance to their native countries and of what is included in the assumption of a new loyalty to the United States. Generally, whether inspired by the oath or not, the address centers around the theme of the implication of citizenship, emphasizing alike the duties and privileges, the obligations and rights of our American democracy. The address should be short, inspirational, and expressed in simple English.

A national crisis always brings resurgence of faith in the American

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of life. In dark hours of our civilization, especially in times of war when the loyalty of all is essential to victory, more and more emphasis is given to the fact that all creeds and all races have made America. In order to create in the newly naturalized citizens a feeling of belonging to America, and a willingness to do their part for her, judges have pointed out contributions to the American way of life by such foreign-born Americans as:

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JACOB Rus from Denmark, whom President Theodore Roosevelt once characterized as the most useful American of his day and the nearest to the ideal of an American citizen. President Roosevelt called him the “brother to all men, especially the unfortunate."

MICHAEL ANAGNOS from Greece, who was once referred to by a Boston paper as "the man who taught the Greeks to learn and adopt everything that is good in American character; the man who did good for the sake of good; the man who expected every Greek to do his duty toward his adopted country." His fame belongs to the United States, but his services extended to all humanity.

JAMES JEROME Hill from Canada, who, as "the empire builder," made thousands of men and women happier because of his clear vision and faith in the future of the great Northwest.

MICHAEL PUPIN from Yugoslavia, the shepherd boy, who became one of America's greatest teachers and scientists. Among his inventions is the "tuning in” mechanism that controls every radio.

SAMUEL GOMPERS from England, through whose efforts the dignity and worth of labor became recognized.

Father EDWARD FLANAGAN from Ireland, who strengthened the fight against juvenile delinquency with the philosophy “there is no such thing as a bad boy,” and who was recognized as an inspirational leader working in behalf of American youth.

JOSEPH PULITZER from Hungary, who founded the widely known newspaper, The New York World; who gave $1,000,000 to Columbia University

, for the first school of journalism in America; and who raised funds to bring the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty to America and place it at the entrance to New York Harbor.

CARL SCHURZ from Germany, who was the loyal friend of Abraham Lincoln and one of his first supporters for the Presidency. No citizen loved, or understood, his country better. America's finest concept of patriotism may

be found in his immortal words: “My country right or wrong; if right to be kept right, if wrong to be set right.”

ALEXANDER GRAHAM Bell from Scotland, who gave to the world one of the greatest inventions of the age, the telephone. Bell's sturdy character and scientific achievements made him one of the greatest benefactors of mankind.

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ANGELO Patri from Italy, who, in his teaching, placed emphasis upon the child and helped the parent to understand the child; out of this grew the first Parent-Teachers Association in America—a historic milestone in the educational field.

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ALBERT EINSTEIN from Germany, the theoretical physicist whose discoveries in that field earned him world-wide renown.

Felix FRANKFURTER from Austria, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Such as these have brought their gifts to America! Throughout our history, certain immigrants have achieved greatness in various fields of activity, but these alone could never have made America great. Year after year, foreign-born Americans, countless thousands from the great common people, have played simpler, though not less essential, roles in making America great. It is fitting, therefore, that the addresses stress, as they have frequently done, the worth and importance of every individual citizen—particularly of the ordinary man.

More and more the addresses given at these ceremonies include emphasis upon the sacredness of human personality and upon the inherent, inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness which have their roots in the Divine 2—not to be taken away

human power. Recognition should be given to the fact that our country is the only nation on earth that includes the right to the pursuit of human happiness in its basic principles.

The sacred rights of American democracy were established by the first immigrants to America and were strengthened by the millions who followed them. These rights will continue to be upheld, as they have been in the past, only as long as they are recognized not merely as privileges to be enjoyed but as a trust to be maintained and defended.

Maintenance and defense of this trust challenges every American citizen to make a positive and continuing contribution to America. Lip loyalty is not sufficient. Repeating the Ameri

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* Father James HOWARD, St. Michael's Church, Pensacola, Fla. “That is why when this glorious country began, our founding fathers were most anxious to find some foundation for human liberties, some guarantees of human personality which would escape the clutching, grasping hand of tyranny, dictator and abuse.

“The Fathers looked first for their model of liberty to England, whose theories and rights were rooted in Parliament and rejected it because 'if Parliament can give rights and liberties then Parliament could take them away.' The fathers next looked to France where it was believed the rights of man were rooted in 'the will of the majority,' and rejected this theory because if the gifts of man are the gifts of the majority, then the majority can take away 'the rights of the minority.'

"Ultimately the founding fathers, rejecting all of the theories, decided the rights of men were rooted not in the state, parliament, dictator or any human powers but in Almighty God.”

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can Creed, or pledging allegiance to the flag, or singing songs about our country becomes an empty form unless followed by activities that add to the individual and total happiness of our people. Celebration of national holidays ' and Citizenship Day becomes meaningless unless in spirit every day is a “good citizen” day.

Each citizen must do his part to make democracy work for all, instead of expecting it to work for him alone. The Golden Rule must prevail, and hate, with all of its kindred evils, must be eliminated from the heart. Hate, prejudice, and bigotry, whether religious or racial, tear down and destroy and can have no place in our democracy

The address might well point out that above all the new citizens must not be content with the progress already made. Much yet remains to be done to achieve the ideals set by those who have gone before. Many inadequacies still exist in our American life inadequacies that can be removed in a legal and orderly way. Because the flag does not fly over a perfect country, sovereign citizens, genuine and faithful in purpose, must be ever mindful of their trust to hand on to the next generation' a greater and better America than they themselves found.

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* Hans KINDLER. 1940. "Many people all over the world are losing-almost overnight the rights and ideals that have taken perhaps hundreds of years to win. We in America cannot protect democracy by remembering it on just a few national holidays and taking it for granted the other 360 days a year.'

United States Office of Education. LET FREEDOM RING. Bulletin No. 32, p. 179. “Struggle for Freedom never ends! Ground that is lost must be regained! Each generation must re-win its rights! Eternal vigilance is still the price of liberty! Let us strive on, to the end that our children's children may always know the glorious fulfillment of that noblest cry known to men—Let Freedom Ring!”

* PETER MARSHALL, D. D. The New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, Washington, D. C. “Our foster mother is not perfect. There is a wisdom that comes only with age, and a mellowness that only time can bring. Here and there in her public life we see selfishness and greed of men and women who are not true to the American heritage. But we who have taken that solemn oath of naturalization have the privilege of helping our foster mother to become as great as she is strong, and as good as she is great. We, her new citizens, her adopted children, can make her laws respected by keeping them ourselves. We have a part in making her government good by exercising the duty and the privilege of the ballot box. We can show our gratitude for all that America means to us by the quality of our citizenship. A good man or a good woman will be a good American, and the true American will be good.”

5 RAYMOND PITCAIRN. TODAY WE ARE AMERICANS ALL. Copyright 1942. “For today the Torch of Freedom is in our hands. We must guard it well. On us depends whether it shall keep America the refuge of the oppressed, the hope of the despairing, the land of justice and opportunity for all. On us depends whether its shining splendor shall still serve as a beacon-fire to men and nations everywhere that seek Free Government. With us rests the responsibility to keep aglow that sacred flame on which rely all human hope, all human progress.”

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