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Pulitzer, a foreign-born American from Hungary, who founded the widely-known newspaper, The New York World; who gave $1,000,000 to Columbia University for the first school of journalism in America; who raised funds to bring the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty to America and place it at the entrance of New York Harbor, and who always dedicated his journalistic talent to the cause of the people.)

THE POOR VOTER ON ELECTION DAY

The proudest now is but my peer,

The highest not more high:
Today, of all the weary year,

A king of men am I.
Today, alike are great and small,

The nameless and the known;
My palace is the people's hall,

The ballot box my throne!
Who serves today upon the list

Beside the served shall stand;
Alike the brown and wrinkled fist,

The gloved and dainty hand!
The rich is level with the poor,

The weak is strong today;
And sleekest broadcloth counts no more

Than homespun frock of gray.
Today let pomp and vain pretence

My stubborn right abide;
I set a plain man's common sense

Against the pedant's pride.
Today shall simple manhood try

The strength of gold and land;
The wide world has not wealth to buy

The power in my right hand!
While there's a grief to seek redress,

Or balance to adjust,
Where weighs our living manhood less

Than Mammom's vilest dust-
While there's a right to need my vote,

A wrong to sweep away,
Up! clouted knee and ragged coat!
A man's a man today!

John GREENLEAF WHITTIER.

Chapter 11

Suggestions for

ADDRESSES

ADDRESS TO NEW CITIZENS 1

WOODROW Wilson, Twenty-seventh President of the United States

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This is the only country in the world which experiences this constant and repeated rebirth. Other countries depend upon the multiplication of their own native people. This country is constantly drinking strength out of new sources by the voluntary association with it of great bodies of strong men and forward-looking women out of other lands. And so by the gift of the free will of independent people it is being constantly renewed from generation to generation by the same process by which it was originally created. *

You have just taken an oath of allegiance to the United States. Of allegiance to whom? Of allegiance to no one, unless it be God-certainly not of allegiance to those who temporarily represent this great Government. You have taken an oath of allegiance to a great ideal, to a great body of principles, to a great hope of the human race. You have said, “We are going to America not only to earn a living, not only to seek the things which it was more difficult to obtain where we were born, but to help forward the great enterprises of the human spirit—to let men know that everywhere in the world there are men who will cross strange oceans and go where a speech is spoken which is alien to them if they can but satisfy their quest for what their spirits crave; knowing that whatever the speech there is but one longing and utterance of the human heart, and that is for liberty and justice.” And while you bring all countries with you, you come with a purpose of leaving all other countries behind you—bringing what is best of their spirit, but not looking over your shoulders and seeking to perpetuate what you intended to leave behind in them.

My urgent advice to you would be, not only always to think first of America, but always, also, to think first of humanity. * * # America was created to unite mankind by those passions which lift and not by the passions which separate and debase. * * * We came to America, either ourselves or in the persons of our ancestors, to better the ideals of men,

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Excerpts from an address to 5,000 newly naturalized citizens at proceedings of the naturalization reception, held at Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 1915.

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to make them see finer things than they had seen before, to get rid of the things that divide and to make sure of the things that unite.

I was born in America. You dreamed dreams of what America was to be, and I hope you brought the dreams with you. No man that does not see visions will ever realize any high hope or undertake any high enterprise. Just because you brought dreams with you, America is more likely to realize dreams such as you brought. You are enriching us if you came expecting us to be better than we are.

A nation that is not constantly renewed out of new sources is apt to have the narrowness and prejudice of a family; whereas, America must have this consciousness, that on all sides it touches elbows and touches hearts with all the nations of mankind.

You have come into this great Nation voluntarily seeking something that we have to give, and all that we have to give is this: We cannot exempt you from work. No man is exempt from work anywhere in the world, We cannot exempt you from the strife and the heartbreaking burden of the struggle of the day-that is common to mankind everywhere; we cannot exempt you from the loads that you must carry. We can only make them light by the spirit in which they are carried. That is the spirit of hope, it is the spirit of liberty, it is the spirit of justice.

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THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 2

ROBERT N. WILKIN, Judge, United States District Court, Northern District

of Ohio

The enthusiasm of naturalized citizens for citizenship, their gratitude for its rights and privileges, stand in marked contrast to the indifference of some people who acquired their citizenship by birth. Too often what is easily acquired is little valued.

This program to commemorate the adoption of our Constitution has allowed time for this ceremony in order that native citizens might be impressed by the fact that citizenship is anxiously sought by those who did not acquire it by merely being born here. As we rejoice with new citizens over their realization, we gain a deeper sense of gratitude for the gift of our forebears.

There probably never was a time when citizenship in our country was more appreciated or its rights more openly challenged in the world. Such appreciation today arises from the very fact that such rights are so challenged. In the countries from which many new citizens came, individual freedom has been utterly destroyed. Despotism and tyranny have again asserted themselves to an extent which a few years ago we would have thought impossible. We who still enjoy freedom and have faith in righteousness stand appalled that so many people can be drawn to the support of government which is so ruthless of private rights, so inconsiderate of moral principles, which makes a strategy of terror, a science of cruelty, and an art of deception.

* Excerpts from address to naturalized citizens at Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 17, 1940.

It is absolutely necessary for us to understand the issue before the world today, if we are to save our sacred rights and hand them on to those who succeed us. All that makes life worth while to free men is at stake. It is not mere strife between individual leaders or separate nations. It is a head-on collision between two different conceptions of social organization. The issue is despotism or democracy.

When we mention democracy we do not mean so much the form of government as an attitude toward life. And that attitude is primarily religious. The democratic way of life recognizes that something in man is divine; and therefore that man is sacred to man, and that all men are equal before the law. It recognizes that because man is a social being he must have government, but it believes, however, that the law which should govern is found not in the will of a dictator, but in the common reason and conscience of men.

Americanism is not based upon place, nor race, nor language, nor sectit is a way of life, the democratic way. It cannot prevail against the or. ganized force and propaganda that assail it unless those who enjoy its benefits have a burning enthusiasm for it, unless those who believe in it are willing to be evangels, patriots, and, if necessary, martyrs. Such patriotism will unify our diverse elements and enable us to present a united front to the regimented forces that challenge us. We must discard our apathy and cynicism. The inspiration of our forebears for liberty and freedom must move us as it moved them.

To acquire your citizenship you have taken an oath of allegiance. You have sworn that you will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, both foreign and domestic. What you as new citizens have promised to do, it is certainly encumbent upon all citizens to do. New citizens would surely not be expected to do more than those citizens who have lived longer in the noble tradition of our Constitution. For our own benefit and the benefit of this Nation and all the world there is nothing better that we can do. In defending our Constitution, we defend the democratic way of life.

SUGGESTED ADDRESS TO NEW CITIZENS BY A NATURALIZED

CITIZEN 3

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It is not for my own sake—for I had become an American in Washington years ago—but for the sake of future citizens and future "final hearings” that I wish to suggest a few words a future judge might say to those eager to receive the sacred inspiration. Not presumptuousness, prompts me to do so, but the love for my country and the love for those men and women who have served, as I did, seven full years for the privilege of becoming Americans and who appear at the final hearing like chastened souls entering Paradise after a long stay in Purgatory.

Fellow Americans!

Let the judge, who has found your applications righteous and your eagerness to achieve American citizenship genuine, be the first to congratulate you on this great day in your lives. The family of one hundred and thirtytwo million whom you have shunned no obstacle to join welcomes you as their own. This day to which you have looked forward for so long is indeed one of overwhelming importance.

It was not you but fate that chose for you the day and the place of your birth. But it is you alone who have proudly and independently decided that you wished to spend your present and your future lives in the community of this mightiest nation on earth, whose very existence is built upon the immortal ideal of democracy.

From this day on, the far-away countries which you once knew have sunk into the oceans surrounding our continent. America does not ask you any longer: “Where do you come from?” But rather takes you into her arms with the question: “Will you be a good fellow citizen?” Whether you originate from ancient Persia, whether from the West Indies, from England, or from one of the unhappy nations of the European continent who are tortured by hatred and jealousy-your country does not care. We all, even the ancestors of Washington, the Father of our Nation, once came from somewhere else, voluntarily, proudly, and with the resolution to be free and

to stay free.

The United States offers you so much that you will have little reason to look back upon a life which lies behind you like the outgrown clothes of your childhood. The time of narrowness is over. The wealth and the resources of your country are immeasurable. Did you know that France does not even cover the area of our one state of Texas? That the United States is seventeen times larger than Germany? That all Italy comprises merely about three-quarters of the size of California?

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