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the tune was the British ‘God Save the King,' and I do not share the regret of those who deem it unfortunate that the national tune of Britain and America should be the same." “America" was first sung at a children's celebration in Boston, July 4, 1832.)

COLUMBIA, THE GEM OF THE OCEAN

O ,
O Columbia, the gem of the ocean,
The home of the brave and the free,
The shrine of each patriot's devotion,
A world offers homage to thee.
Thy mandates make heroes assemble,
When Liberty's form stands in view
Thy banners make tyranny tremble,
When borne by the red, white, and blue!
When borne by the red, white, and blue!
When borne by the red, white, and blue!
Thy banners make tyranny tremble,

When borne by the red, white, and blue! (Generally credited to Thomas A. Becket, an actor of English birth, who was long a resident of Philadelphia. It has been a popular national song since it was first sung in Philadelphia in 1843. In England the melody is known as “Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean.”)

AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL

O beautiful for spacious skies,
For amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties
Above the fruited plain.
America! America!
God shed His grace on thee,
And crown thy good with brotherhood,
From sea to shining sea!

(Written by Katharine Lee Bates, Wellesley College professor. The poem was inspired by her first trip to Pikes Peak in 1893: "As I was looking out over the sealike expanse of fertile country spreading away so far under those ample skies, the opening lines of the hymn floated into my mind.")

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From the mountains, to the prairies,

To the oceans white with foam,
God bless America

My home sweet home.

(Written by Irving Berlin, a naturalized citizen, in 1917, during World War I. The song, however, was not published at that time; in fact, Kate Smith really introduced “God Bless America" on an Armistice Day broadcast, November 11, 1938. “You have to go away,” says Mr. Berlin, “to really know what home is like. You have to have been in Europe to know how wonderful America is. * * * I came back so grateful and thankful to be an American citizen, I just had to do something to express that feeling * * * and, being a song writer, I wanted to write a song about it. * * * I feel this particular song has a quality none of my others has. You see, it isn't a song about war or peace or the flag. It's a song about home. * * * And America is my home, and so I say, 'God Bless America.'”)

CONCORD HYMN

By the rude bridge that arched the flood,

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,

And fired the shot heard 'round the world.
The foe long since in silence slept;

Alike the conqueror silent sleeps;
And Time the ruined bridge has swept

Down the dark stream which seaward creeps,
On this green bank, by this soft stream,

We set today a votive stone;
That memory may their deed redeem,

When, like our sires, our sons are gone.
Spirit, that made those heroes dare

To die, and leave their children free,
Bid Time and Nature gently spare

The shaft we raise to them and thee. (Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson and sung at the completion of the Battle Monu. ment, April 19, 1936.)

HOME, SWEET HOME!

Mid pleasures and palaces tho we may roam,
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home;
A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there,
Which, seek thru the world, is ne'er met with elsewhere.

Home, Home! sweet, sweet Home!
There's no place like Home! there's no place like Home!

(Written by John Howard Payne, first sung in the opera Capri at the Covent Garden Theater, London, in May 1823.

(Payne lived much of his life away from his native land. While serving as American Consul, he died in Tunis, Africa, April 9, 1852. Thirty-one years later, the United States Government dispatched a man-of-war to the African Coast. In the lonely cemetery in Tunis, Americans opened the grave, placed his remains on board the returning battle. ship. Firing of guns in the fort and flags at half-mast marked the arrival in the American harbor. The body was taken to the Nation's Capital on a special train. Governmental and commercial business was suspended. As the funeral procession passed down Pennsylvania Avenue, the President, Vice President, Cabinet members, Congressmen, members of the Supreme Court, high officers of the Army and Navy, and a mass of citizens stood with uncovered heads. They thus paid homage to a man whose soul longed for home, and who expressed that longing in the words of the ever-living song: "Home Sweet Home.")

Chapter 7 PLEDGES, OATHS OF ALLEGIANCE, PRAYERS

AND CREEDS

Our father's God, To Thee,
Author of liberty,
To Thee we sing.
Long may our land be bright
With freedom's holy light;
Protect us by Thy might,
Great God, our King! 1

PRAYER

God of the free, we pledge our hearts and lives today to the cause of all free mankind.

Grant us victory over the tyrants who would enslave all free men and nations. Grant us faith and understanding to cherish all those who fight for freedom as if they were our brothers. Grant us brotherhood in hope and union, not only for the space of this bitter war, but for the days to come which shall and must unite all the children of earth.

Our earth is but a small star in the great universe. Yet of it we can make, if we choose, a planet unvexed by war, untroubled by hunger or fear, undivided by senseless distinctions of race, color, or theory. Grant us that courage and foreseeing to begin this task today that our children and our children's children

may be proud of the name of man. The spirit of man has awakened and the soul of man has gone forth. Grant us the wisdom and the vision to comprehend the greatness of man's spirit, that suffers and endures so hugely for a goal beyond his own brief span. Grant us honor for the dead who died in the faith, honor for our living who work and strive for the faith, redemption and security for all captive lands and peoples. Grant us patience with the deluded and pity for the betrayed. And grant us the skill and the valor that shall cleanse the world of oppression and the old base doctrine that the strong must eat the weak because they are strong.

Yet most of all grant us brotherhood, not only for this day but for all our years

-a brotherhood not of words but of acts and deeds. We are all

* Fourth stanza of “America."

of us children of earth-grant us that simple knowledge. If our brothers are oppressed, then we are oppressed. If they hunger, we hunger. If their freedom is taken away, our freedom is not secure. Grant us a common faith that man shall know bread and peace, that he shall know justice and righteousness, freedom and security, an equal chance to do his best, not only in our own lands, but throughout the world. And in that faith let us march toward the clean world our hands can make. Amen.

STEPHEN VINCENT BENET.

(Read by President Roosevelt at United Nations Day Ceremony, White House, June 15, 1942. Copyright by STEPHEN VINCENT BENET. 1942. Reprinted by permission.)

THE AMERICAN'S CREED

I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people, whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy in a republic; a sovereign nation of many sovereign states; a perfect union, one and inseparable, established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.

I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its Constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.

WILLIAM TYLER PAGE,

Former Clerk of the House of Representatives. (The Creed had its origin in many sources. It was accepted by the House of Representatives on behalf of the American people on April 3, 1918, and recited for the first time by Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education. Shortly thereafter it was recited by the author from the steps of our Nation's Capitol in the Third Liberty Loan Drive of World War I. Built out of phrases from the Constitution of the United States, The Declaration of Independence, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Webster's Speech to the Senate of January 26, 1830, Edward Everett Hale’s “The Man Without a Country,” The Oath of Allegiance (Sec. 1757, Revised Statutes of the United States), Washington's Farewell Address and the National Anthem—The Star Spangled Banner, our National Creed can be appropriately repeated by all of us, including those who come to us from other shores and those of our own flesh and blood who grow into manhood to take our places to support and defend our country.)

PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

(At the time of adopting the pledge in the above form, Congress also provided that: "Such pledge should be rendered by standing with the right hand over the heart. However, civilians will always show full respect to the flag when the pledge is given by merely standing at attention, men removing the headdress. Persons in uniform shall render the military salute. 36 U. S. C. 172.)

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