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DUJ
Crematogaster scutellaris, their

neglect of friends in trouble,
98; experiments as to percep-
tion of colour among, 192
sordidula, threatening attitude

of, 16
Cross-fertilisation effected by in.

sects, 50

Chennium, rarely more than one

specimen of, in an ants' nest, 78
Christ, M., on the length of life of

queen ants, 9; on ant roads, 25
Chrome alum, experiments as to

ant vision with, 217
Chromium chloride, experiments

with, 217
Claparède, M, as to insect-vision,

183
Clark, Rev. Hamlet, as to an ant.

tunnel in S. America, 25
Claviger, a blind beetle, a guest

in ants' nests, 75, 76; experi-

ments with, by M. Lespès, 90
Cleanliness of ants, 29
Coccidæ, their use to ants, 68
Cocoons spun by some larvæ of

ants, 7
Colobopsis truncata and C. fusipes,

two forms of the same species,

20
Colour-sense of ants, 186, &c.; of

bees, 291, &c.; of wasps, 316 ;
less developed among wasps

than bees, 321
Colours of flowers, evolution of,

308
Communication, power of, among

ants, 153, &c.; among bees,
156; experiments as to, with
ants, 160, 344, 376; with bees,

276, 401 ; with wasps, 311, 415
Communities of ants, 24 ; power

of mutual recognition among

members of, 119, 333
Compassion among ants, instances

of, 106, 108; absence of, among

bees, 286
Co-operation, experiments as to,

among ants, 365–376
Correlation of form of knot with

stinging power in ants, 13; of
colour in flowers with specialisa-

tion of form, 308
Courage of ants, 27; of wasps,

314
Crematogaster lineolata, adoption

of a queen by, 34

DAPANIA, limits of vision in,

219
Darkness, education of young

ants conducted in, 5; effect of,
on the eyes of Platyarthrus and

Beckia, 75
Darwin, on the sound produced

by Mutilla, 229
- Francis, on the use of the leaf-

cups of teazle, 52
Dead, treatment of the, among

bees, 287
Defences of flowers against un.

bidden guests, 52-7
Degradation of Strongylognathus,

85; caused by slaveholding, 89
Dewitz, Dr., on the non-develop-

ment of the sting in the For-
micidæ, 14; on eggs laid by

fertile workers, 36, 40
Dinarda dentata in ants' nests,

76, 77
Dipsacus sylrestris, leaf-cups of, 52
Direction, sense of, among ants,

260; guided by the position of
the light, 268; sense of, among
bees, 278; among wasps, 321,

420
Discs, atrophy of imaginal, in

worker ants, 12; cleared by
harvesting ants, 61; experi-
ments as to sense of direction

with rotating, 261, &c.
Division of labour among apts,

23, 44; tabular view of experi-

ments on, 324
Domestic animals of ants, 68-78
Driver ants, see Anomma arcens
Dujardin, M., as to the power of

EBR

FOO
152; as to power of communi-
cation among ants, 160–181,
344-376; among bees, 274, 401;
among wasps, 311, 415; as to
perception of colour, 186; with
coloured solutions, 194; with
spectrum, 198; with the electric
light, 201; as to ultra-violet
rays, 200-220; with magnesium
spark, 207 ; as to sense of hear-
ing among ants, 222; among
bees, 290; as to sense of smell
among ants, 233, 258 ; among
bees, 288; as to ant intelligence,
237; as to economy of labour,
241; as to ingenuity among
ants, 243–6; as to their power
of finding their way, 250 ; as
to means of tracking, 168, 383,
387 ; as to sense of direction
among ants, 260; among bees,
278; and among wasps, 321; as
to guidance of ants by sight,
266; as to the behaviour of
bees in a strange hive, 281; as
to their compassion, 286 ; as to
their colour sense, 291; and
their preference of certain
colours, 302; as to colour sense

among wasps, 316
Expulsion of ant from nest, 98
Eyes of two kinds in ants, 10;

compound, 182; various de
velopments of, 183

FACETS

communication among bees, 156,
313

as to the origin of ants' nests,
31
Eciton, the eye in, 11

drepanophora, their order in
marching, 21
- erratica, soldiers among, 21;

their covered galleries, 65
- legionis at play, 29
- vastator, soldiers among, 21 ;

their covered galleries, 65
Economy of labour among ants,

experiments as to, 240, &c.
Eggs of ants described, 6; laid
occasionally by worker ants, 35 ;
by worker bees and wasps, 36 ;
these always produce males, 37;
as to difference of sex in, 40 ;
of aphis, tended by ants, 69;

and hatched in captivity, 71
Electric light, experiments on ants

with, 200
Emery's observations on Colobopsis,

20
Enemies of ants, 26, 67
Evolution of colour in flowers, 308
Experiments, as to the adoption of

a queen by ants, 32; as to di-
vision of labour among ants, 23,
44, 324; as to their care of
aphis-eggs, 70; on Claviger, 90 ;
as to the treatment by ants of
injured companions, 94, 107 ;
with chloroformed ants, 98,
108–111; with drowned ants,

with buried ants, 102; as
to treatment of stranger ants,
104, 119, 124, 333; as to mode
of recognition, 108; with in-
toxicated ants, 111-118; as to
power of recognition among
ants, 119, 333; and among bees,
126; with ant-pupæ removed
from nest, 129-147 ; on sister-
ants brought up separately, 147-

99;

VACETS of the eye in ants,

number of, 11 ; described, 182
Feeding, loss of instinct of, 76, 83,

87
Fertilisation of plants by insects,

50, 291
Fighting among ants, different

modes of, 17
Flowers, their defences against

unprofitable insects, 51–55; in-
fluence of bees on their develop-

ment, 291 ; paucity of blue, 308
Food of ants, 25, 63; its effect in

FOR
determining the sex in ants and
bees, 40; individual ants in
certain species serve as recep-

tacles of, 47
Foragers, certain ants of a nest

told off as, 45, 47
Forel, Dr., referred to as to the

emergence of pupæ of ants, 8;
as to their compound eyes, 10;
as to the position of spiracles,
14; as to the offices of young
ants, 23; as to F. rufa, 27; as
to ant-games, 28, 29; as to
origin of nests, 31 ; as to eggs
laid by workers, 35; on the
honey ant, 40; on the germina-
tion of grain in ant-stores, 61 ;
as to beetles in ant nests, 78;
as to the slaves of F. sanguinea,
80; as to the slave-making of
Strongylognathus, 85; on Aner-
gates, 86 ; on the behaviour of
ants to each other, 94 ; on re-
cognition among ants, 120; as
to power of communication
among ants, 158; as to their
insensibibility to sound, 221; as
to special organs in their an-

tennæ, 227
Formica bispinosa, its nest, 24

cinerea, 16; character of, 27;
eggs laid by workers among, 37,
39; duration of life of, 42
- congerens, Thiasophila in nests

of, 77
- exsecta, mode of attack of, 17;

extent of nest of, 24; Thiaso-
phila in nests of, 77
- flara, Uropoda in nests of, 431
- fusca, occasionally spins a

cocoon, 7; its timidity, 27; in-
troduction of a queen among,

eggs laid by workers
among, 38, 39 ; queens produced
in captivity, 40; longevity of,
42; division of labour among,
45; occasionally found in the
nests of F. rufa, 79; enslaved
by F. sanguinea, 80; Platy-

FOR
arthrus received in nests of, 90;
their condition analogous to
that of the hunting races of
men, 91 ; their neglect of friends
in trouble, 96; expulsion of a
member from the nest, 98; mite
attached to the head of a queen
of, 98; their neglect of im-
prisoned companions, 103 ; hos-
tility towards imprisoned
strangers, 104; instances of
their kindness to crippled com-
panions, 106; experiments as
to recognition among, 122, 130,
134, 233; on power of commu-
nication among, 161, 180; as to
perception of colour among, 188,

193, 201
Formica gagates enslaved by F.
sanguinea, 80

ligniperda, experiments as to
sense of hearing among, 223; as
to sense of smell among, 234
- nigra, experiment as to power
of communication among, 363
pratensis, eye of, 10, 184; at-
tacked by F. exsecta, 18; its
treatment of slain enemies, 27 ;
Stenamma in nests of, 78; large
communities of, 119
- rufa, its power of ejecting poi.
son, 15; its mode of attack, 17,
27 ; nests of, 23; large number
of insects kept in nests of, 74,
75; Stenamma in nests of, 78
- rufibarbis perhaps a variety of

F. fusca, 80
- sanguinea, its mode of attack,

17; duration of life of, 41, 42;
Dinarda in nests of, 77; their
periodical attack on neighbour-
ing nests, 79; slaves made by,
80; not yet degraded by slave.
holding, 88; they apparently
understand the signals of Pra-

tensis, 159
Formicide, one of the three fami-

lies of ants, 1 ; power of sting-
ing absent in them, 13

34;

49;

FRA

INS
Franklin, Dr., as to power of com- Hatred a stronger passion with

munication among ants, 165 ants than affection, 106
Friends, behaviour of ants to, 97, Head of ant described, 10; large
101 ; recognition of, 119, 333 size of, in workers of certain

species, 20, 22
GA
ALLERIES, covered, made by Hearing, sense of, among insects,
Eciton, 65

221 ; possibly present in ants,
Galton, Mr. Francis, on domestic 226; among bees, 290; among
animals kept as pets, 77

wasps, 313
Games among ants, 28

Heterius sesquicornis, in ants'
Gélieu, M., on means of recogni. nests, 77
tion among bees, 126

Hicks, Dr. J. Braxton, on the
Gentians, colours of, 310

antennæ of insects, 227
Glasses, experiments on ants with Hildebrand on the variations of
coloured, 186, &c.

blue flowers, 310
Gould, Mr., on the emergence of Honey, love of ants for, 51 ; of

the imago, 8; on ant-games, aphis, 69; experiments on ants

28; on the eggs of aphides, 69 entangled in, 98
Goureau, M., on the sound pro- Honey ants, 19, 47 ; independently
duced by Mutilla, 229

originated in Mexico and Texas,
Graber, Dr. von, on the sense

Australia described, 428
organs in the legs of Gryllus, Hope, Mr., quoted as to harvest-
231

ing ants, 60
Grain collected and stored by ants, Horse ant, see F. rufa

26,60; germination of, prevented Huber, as to ants playing, 28; as
by ants, 61

to the formation of a nest, 30;
Gredler, Dr., anecdote of ant-intel- on the care taken by ants of
ligence told by, 237

aphis eggs, 70; as to slavery
Grimm's observations on Dinarda, among ants, 81; as to their re-
76

cognition of friends, 120; as to
Grote, Mr., quoted as to the ne- their deafness, 221

cessity of morality in societies, Hunting ants, 59, 63, 91
93

Hydnophytum formicarum, its as.
Growth of insects takes place sociation with ants, 58

during the larval stage, 8 Hymenoptera, common origin of
Guests of ants, 74

the sting in the, 15; the social,
Gryllus,sense organs in tibiæ of,231 means of communication be.

tween, 153
CABITATIONS of ants, 24

Hagens, von, quoted as to
myrmecophilous beetles, 77; tween ants, 95, 101 ; between
on the slave-making of Strongy- bees, 279
lognathus, 85; on Anergates, 86; Industry of ants, 27; of wasps,
his suggestions as to Strongy- 321, 421
lognathus, 87

Insects, their metamorphoses, 8;
Hairs of plants as defences against their agency in fertilisation of
insects, 55

flowers, 50, 291 ; mimicking ants,
Harvesting ants, 69, 92; in the 66; kept by ants, 73; recogni.

South of Europe and Texas, 61 tion among, 126; their vision,

HAP

IN

LEP

[blocks in formation]

ants, 23, 44 ; experiments as
to economising, 240; tabular

view of experiments on, 324-332
Landois, on the sound emitted by

Mutilla, 229; on stridulating ap-

paratus in ants, 230
Langstroth, Dr., as to recognition

by smell among bees, 281; on

their recklessness, 285
Larvæ of ants described, 6; of

stranger nests carefully tended,

129
Lasius brunneus prefers the aphides

of the bark of trees, 68
- flavus, period of larval life in,
7; the eye in, 11; will not
adopt a strange queen, 32; mites
in the nest of, 67; keeps flocks
of the root-feeding aphis, 68 ;
keeps four or five species of
aphis in its nests, 73; Platy-
arthrus a guest of, 75, 90; they
have arrived at the pastoral
stage' of progress, 91; their
behaviour to a dead queen, 108;
to chloroformed friends and
strangers, 108–111; to intoxi.

cated friends and strangers, 111;
their treatment of strangers,
123; perception of colour among,
190, 193, 195; experiments as
to sense of hearing among, 223 ;
stridulating apparatus in, 231 ;
structure in tibia of, 232; want
of ingenuity among, 248; earth-
works constructed by, 249; ex.
periments with, as to power of
communication, 365; as to co-
operation, 372; new species of

mite found in nests of, 429
Lasius niger, workers among, 19;

fed by aphides, 25; eggs laid
by workers among, 37 ; longe-
vity of, 42; typical nest of, illus-
trated, 42; and described, 44 ;
they carry seeds of violet into
their nests, 59; their choice
among aphides, 68; Platy-
arthrus a guest of, 75; Heterins
found in nests of, 77 ; experi.
ments as to Claviger in nests of,
90; observations on a wounded
worker among, 95; experiments
with buried individuals of, 102;
with pupæ as to recognition
among, 131; as to power of
communication among, 160, 163,
172, 175, 356-362, 377; as to
perception of colour among, 191,
201; as to their intelligence,
240; their want of ingenuity,
242, 246; as to scent, 258; as
to sense of direction among,
260; Phora fornicarum para-
sitic on, 433

fuliginosus, the eye in, 11;
stridulating apparatus in, 230
Latreille quoted as to compassion

shown by ants, 94
Leaf-cutting ants, 57
Legs of ants described, 12
Leptothorax acervorum, Platy-

arthrus a guest of, 75; Tomo-
gnathus in nests of, 87 note

muscorum, Tomognathus in
nests of, 87 note

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