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McCOOK, H. C. Note on Adoption of a Queen Ant. Proc.

Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1879.
On the Nat. His. of the Agricultural Ant of


The Honey Ant of Texas. MÄRKEL, F.

Beit. zur Kenntniss der unter Ameisen leben.

den Insecten. Germar's Zeit. Ent., 1841. MAYR, Dr. G. L. Europ. Formiciden.

Leben und Wirken der einh. Ameisen. MEINERT, F.

Bidrag til de Danske Myrers Naturhistorie.

Kiöbenhaven, Dansk. vid. Selsk., 1861. MEYER, J.

Ueber conconlose Ameisenpappen. Stettin

Ent. Zeit., 1854. MÜLLER, P. W. J. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Gattung

Claviger. Germar's Mag. de Zool., 1818. ORMEROD, E. L. Natural History of Wasps. RAMBERT, M. Meurs des Fourmis. ROBERT, E.

Observations sur les Mours des Fourmis.

Ann, des Sci. Nat., 1842. ROGER, J.

Beit. Kennt. der Ameisenfauna der

Mittelmeerländer. Berlin. Ent. Zeit., 1857. ST. FARGEAU, LEPELETIER. Hist. Nat. des Hyménoptères. SAUNDERS, EDWARD Brit. Heterogyna and Foss. Hymenoptera.

Trans. Ent. Soc., 1880. SAVAGE, T. S.. On the Habits of Driver Ants. Trans. Ent.

Soc., 1847. SCHENK, Professor Beschr. Nassan. Ameisenarten. Stettin. Ent.

Zeit., 1853. SIEBOLD, C. T. Von. Ueber das Stimm. und Gehörorgan der Or

thopteren. Weissmann's Arch., 1844. SMITH, F.

Cat. of Brit. Foss. Hymenoptera.
Essay on British Formicidæ. Trans. Ent.

Soc., N.S. vol. iii. p. 98.

Account of Pheidole providens. Trans. Ent.

Soc., 1836. WESMAEL, C. Sur une nouv. Espèce de Fourmi du Mexique.

Bull. de l'Acad. de Sci. de Bruxelles, 1838. WESTWOOD, J. O. Modern Classification of Insects.

Obs. on Typhlopone. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,





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The Anthropoid apes no doubt approach nearer to man in bodily structure than do any other animals; but when we consider the habits of Ants, their social organisation, their large communities, and elaborate habitations; their roadways, their possession of domestic animals, and even, in some cases, of slaves, it must be admitted that they have a fair claim to rank next to man in the scale of intelligence. They present, moreover, not only a most interesting, but also a very extensive field of study.

Ants are divided into three families: the Formicidæ, Poneridæ, and Myrmicidæ, comprising many genera and a large number of species. In this country we have rather more than thirty kinds; but ants become more numerous in species, as well as individuals, in warmer countries, and more than a thousand species are known. Even this large number is certainly far short of those actually in existence.

I have kept in captivity about half of our British species of ants, as well as a considerable number of foreign forms, and for the last few years have generally had from thirty to forty communities under observation. After trying various plans, I found the most convenient method was to keep them in nests consisting of two plates of common window glass, about ten inches square, and at a distance apart of from to to

of an inch (in fact just sufficiently deep to allow the ants freedom of motion), with slips of wood round the edges, the intermediate space being filled up with fine earth. If the interval between the glass plates was too great, the ants were partly hidden by the earth, but when the distance between the plates of glass was properly regulated with reference to the size of the ants, they were open to close observation, and had no opportunity of concealing themselves. Ants, however, very much dislike light in their nests, probably because it makes them think themselves insecure, and I always therefore kept the nests covered over, except when under actual

I I have had some doubt whether I should append descriptions of the British spec On the whole, however, I have not tho ht it necessary to do so. They are well given in various entomological works: for instance, in Smith's Cat. of British Fossorial Hymenoptera, published by the Trustees of the British Museum ; Saunders'

Synopsis of British Heterogyna,' Trans. Entomological Soc. London ; and in Mayr's Die Europ. Formiciden, all of which are cheap and easily procurable. I have, however, given figures of the principal species with which I have worked.

observation. I found it convenient to have one side of the nest formed by a loose slip of wood, and at one corner I left a small door. These glass nests I either kept in shallow boxes with loose glass covers resting, on baize, which admitted enough air, and yet was impervious to the ants; or on stands surrounded either by water, or by fur with the hairs pointing downwards. Some of the nests I arranged on stands, as shown in

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tig. 1. A A is an upright post fixed on a base B B. CC is a square platform of wood round which runs a ditch of water. Above are six nests, D, each lying on a platform E, which could be turned for facility of observation, as shown in the dotted lines D' and E'. Thus the ants had a considerable range, as they could wander as far as the water ditch. The object of having the platform C C larger than the supports of the nests

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