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Off-capp'd to him; and, by the faith of mari,
I know my price, I'm worth no worse a Place.
But he, as loving his own pride and purpose ;
Evades them with a bombaft circumstance,
Horribly ftuft with epithets of war,
And, in conclusion,

Non-fuits my mediators. "Certes, fays he,
"I have already chofe my officer."
And what was he?


Forfooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Caffio, a Florentine,
A fellow almoft damn'd 3 in a fair wife;

2-a Florentine,] It appears from many pafiages of this play, (rightly underflood) that Caffio was a Florentine, and Iago a Venetian. HANMER. 3-in a fair wife;] In the former editions this hath been printed, a fair wife; but furely it muft from the beginning have been a mistake, because it appears from a following part of the play, that Caffin was an unmarried man: On the other hand, his beauty is often hinted at, which it is natural enough for rough foldiers to treat with fcorn and ridicule. I read therefore, A fellow almost damn'd in a fair phyz.


-a Florentine, A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair wife;] But it was lago, and not Caffio, who was the Florentine, as appears from Act 3. Scene 1. The paffage therefore fhould be read thus,

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(a Florentine's A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair wife;-)

Thefe are the words of Othello, (which Iage in this relation repeats) and fignify, that a Florentine was an unfit perfon for command, as being always a flave to a fair wife; which was the cafe of Iago. The Oxford Editor, fuppoling this was faid by Iago of Caffio, will have Caffio to be the Fiorentine; which, he fays, is plain from many passages in the Play, rightly understood. But becaufe Caffio was no married man, (tho' I wonder it did not appear he was, from fome paffages rightly understood) he alters the line thus,

A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair Phyz.


A White-friers' phrafe. WARE.

This is one of the paffages which must for the present be refigned to corruption and obfcurity. I have nothing that I can, with any approach to confidence, propose. I cannot think it very plain from A&t III. Scene 1. that Caffio was or was not a Florentine.


That never fet a fquadron in the field,
Nor the divifion of a battle knows

More than a spinfter; but the bookish theorick,
+ Wherein the toged confuls can propose

As masterly as he.

Meer prattle, without practice,
He had th' election;

Is all his foldierfhip.
And I, of whom his
At Rhodes, at Cyprus,
Chriftian and heathen,

eyes had seen the proof
and on other grounds

must be belee'd and calm'd

By Debitor and Creditor. This Counter-cafter
He, in good time, muft his lieutenant be,

And I, Sir, (bless the mark!) his Moor-ship's Ancient.

Rod. By heav'n, I rather would have been his hang


Iago. But there's no remedy; 'tis the curfe of fer


Preferment goes by letter and affection,

7 And not by old gradation, where each fecond

Wherein the tongued Confuls-] So the generality of the impreffions read; but the oldeft quarto has it toged; the Senators, that affifted the Duke in Council, in their proper Gowns.

But let me explain, why I have ventured to fubftitute Counfellors in the room of Confuls: The Venetian nobility conftitute the great Council of the Senate, and are a part of the adminiftration; and fummon'd to affift and counsel the Doge, who is Prince of the Senate. So that they may very properly be called Counfel-> lors. Tho' the Government of Venice was democratick at first, under Confuls and Tribunes; that form of power has been totally VOL. VIII.


abrogated, fince Doges have been elected. THEOBALD. Wherein the toged Confuls-] Confuls, for couns❜lors. WARB.

5 must be LED and calm'd]· So the old Quarto. The firft Folio reads belee'd: but that spoils the measure. I read LET, hindered. WARBURTON. Belee'd fuits to calmed, and the measure is not lefs perfect than in many other places. 6 by letter] By recommendation from powerful friends.

7 And not by old gradation,-] What is old gradation? He immediately explains gradation very properly. But the idea of old does not come into it,



Stood heir to th' firft. Now, Sir, be judge yourself, • If I in any juft term am affin'd

To love the Moor.

Rod. I would not follow him then.

Tago. O Sir, content you;

I follow him to ferve my turn upon him.
We cannot all be mafters, nor all masters
Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark

Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,

That, doting on his own obfequious bondage,
Wears out his time, much like his matter's afs,
For nought but provender; and when he's old, ca-

Whip me fuch honeft knaves. Others there are,
Who, trimm'd in forms and vifages of duty,
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves;
And, throwing but shows of fervice on their Lords,
Well thrive by them; and when they've lin'd their

Do themselves homage. Thefe folks have fome foul,
And fuch a one do I profefs myself.

It is as fure as you are Rodorigo,

Were I the Moor, I would not be lago.

In following him, I follow but myself,

Heav'n is my judge!-Not I, for love and duty,
But feeming fo, for my peculiar end.

-where each Second Stood heir to th' first.I read therefore.

Not (as of old) gradation i. e. it does not go by gradation, as it did of old. WARBURTON. Old gradation, is gradation eftablished by ancient practice. Where is the difficulty?

8 If I in any jft term am affin'd] Aned is the reading

of the third quarto and the first folio. The fecond quarto and all the modern editions have affign'd. The meaning is, Do I ftand within any fuch terms of propinquity or relation to the Moor, as that it iş my duty to love him?

9-boneft knaves.-] Knave is here for fervant, but with a mixture of fly contempt.



For when my outward action doth demonftrate
The native act and figure of my heart
' In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve,
For daws to peck at. I'm not what I am.

Rod. What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe, If he can carry't thus?

Iago. Call up her father,

Roufe him. Make after him, poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets; incenfe her kinsmen ;
And though he in a fertile climate dwell,

Plague him with flies; though that his joy be joy,
Yet throw fuch changes of vexation on't,
As it may lofe fome colour.

Rod. Here is her father's house, I'll call aloud.
Iago. Do, with like timorous accent, and dire yell,
As when, by night and negligence, the fire
Is fpied in populous cities.


• In compliment extern, that which I do only for an outward fhew of civility.

2 As when, by night and negligence, the fire

Is SPIED in populous cities.] This is not fenfe, take it which way you will. If night and negligence relate to Spied, it is abfurd to fay the fire was spied by negligence. If night and negl gence refer only to the time and occafion, it fhould then be by night, and thro' negligence. Otherwife the particle by would be made to fignify time applied to one word, and caufe applied to the other. We should read therefore, Is SPRED, by which all thefe faults are avoided. But what is of moft weight, the fi

Y 2

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Rod. What, ho! Brabantio! Signior Brabantio! ho. Iago. Awake! what, ho! Brabantio! ho! Thieves! thieves!

Look to your houfe, your daughter, and your bags. Thieves! thieves !

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Brabantio appears above, at a Window.

Bra. What is the reafon of this terrible fummons ? What is the matter there?

Rod. Signior, is all your family within?
Iago. Are all doors lock'd?

Bra. Why? Wherefore ask you this?

Iago. Sir, you are robb'd. For shame, put on your

Your heart is burft, you have loft half your foul;
Ev'n now, ev'n very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arife, arise,
Awake the fnorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the Devil will make a grandfire of you.
Arife, I fay.

Bra. What, have you loft your wits?

Rod. Moft reverend fignior, do you know my voice? Bra. Not I. What are you?

Rod. My name is Rodorigo.

Bra. The worfer welcome.

I've charg'd thee not to haunt about my doors.
In honeft plainness thou hast heard me fay,

My daughter's not for thee; and now in madness,
Being full of fupper and diftemp'ring draughts,
Upon malicious bravery doft thou come

To start my quiet.

Rod. Sir, Sir, Sir

Bra. But thou must needs be fure,

My fpirit and my place have in their power


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