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THE REPORT of the Commisioner of Education for 1877 bas just been received. It ehows the income for all the states and territories (Wyoming not included) to be $86,866,166. The expenditures (Wyoming included), $30,233,458. The school population for 38 states and nine territories is fixed at 14,227,748. The annual expense per capita for public school pupils ranges from $1.39 in North Carolina to $35 76 in the Cherokee tribe, Indian Territory. The number of normal schools reporter is 152, baving 1,189 instructors, 37,072 pupils, and 3,763 graduates, of which number 1,874 are engaged in teachiog. Ohio reports the greatest number of normal schools, namely, 14. The largest appropriation to a normal sc pol was that of $95,000, made to the New York City Normal College by the city. The bequesis made to educational institutions for the year were $3,000,000, of wbich institu. tions for the superior instruction of women received $163,976. The average of salaries paid to public school teachers in the district of Columbia for men was $96.17, for women, $71.21 per month, giving a higher mean than that reported for any othe: part of the country except Nevada.

NEARLY two years ago Governor Robinson, of New York, in a message to the legislature, made a foolish attack upon public high schools, and particularly upon the State Nermal schools. Everybody knows how happy this made the enemies of public education everywhere. No notice seems to have been taken by the legislature of what the governor said about high schools, which were supported by local money. But the normal schools were receiving from the state treasury about $140,000 annually, and in addition to this the city of New York was expending nearly $100,000 a year on ber great normal college. Hence the legislature appointed a committee of nine to give a thorough examination and report to the next legislature whether these schools were successfully fulfilling the design of their creation, and whether any legislation was required. After considering the subject more than a year, the committee made a most

intelligent report of forty-eight printed pages, wh!ch sustains the schools, and pronounces them a neceesity. The report is really a fine argument in favor of normal education, as well as a testimony in favor of the New York normal schools. Thus, as is usual in such cases, Governor Robinson's attack only strengthened the schools attacked.

The Medico Legal Society of New York has issued a report on School Hygiene which has more than a local interest. Some time ago this society appointed a committee, consisting of well known physicians, to investigate the health questions connected with the public. The committee find that during the vacation months there is a marked decline in the death rate from scarlet fever, but as soon as the schools open the disease increases its ravages. The Chairman of the Health Committee of the Brooklyn Board of Education remarks that over 3,000 children disappear from the time of entering the lowest grade to that of promotion to the next, and assigas the loss to the unsan. tary condition of the schools. In many of our own schools, more in the country than in the cities, the want of ventilation is plainly appar* ent to any one entering them from the fresh out-coor atmosphere. The class-rooms are fre. qnently crowded with children, many of whom, either in person or clothing, are not over cleanly; the windows are kept closed to prevent & draught, and a large stove, the exhalations from the children's persons, and the carbon from their breath quickly convert the air of the room into a most subtile poison, and it is no wonder that delicate children exposed to such an atmosphere day after day, did, and the teachers become delicate and bave to resign or wearily drag on, incapable of giving their best energy to their work.

The question of ventilation is beset with difficulty, and to obtain absolutely pure air in a crowded room with our present architectural knowledge appears almost impossible. But the existence of these difficulties, instead of being a reason for culpable supineness on the part of school boards, ought to be an incentive to extra exertion.

MAP OF WISCONSIN. The New Map of Wisconsin, prepared by Nicodemus & Conover, and purchased by the State for the use of Schools and Public Offices, will hereafter show the NEW COUNTIES of the State.

The Price is $4, in Advance. Blank applications furnished on request.


Madison, Wisconsin.

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For use in Primary Schools, based upon a course of conversational picture-lessons, the results of which are to be written in the pages of the book;


Letters and Lessons in Language,

in two series of four numbers each.

Which continues the course in Grammar Schools, creating occasion for the natural use of language forms, without anticipating the study of grammar, before it can be profitably taken.

The Series combines the advantages of both oral and text-book instruction.

Words are treated as concrete and pictorial terms, illustration taking for the most part the place commonly given to definition.

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1. Best because most natural language culturc.
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3. Oral instruction in permanent form.

4. A practical course in writing.
e Sample copy 10 cents, or complete set of the Child's Book of Language, in-
cluding Teacher's Editions, 50 cents.
C. E. LANE, General Agent for the Northwest,

No. 61, Washington St., Chicago.



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Milwaukee Disa

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An elementry Treatise on PRONUNCIATION for the use of Teachers and Schools. By Prof. A. SALISBURY, A. M., Conductor of Teachers' Institutes and Teacher of Reading in the White. water Normal School, Wisconsin. Price, 50 cente. Wm. J. PARK & CO., Publishers,

Madison, Wis.

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ELEMENTS OF ENGLISH ANALYSIS, Illustrated by a New System of Diagrams. By Stephen H. Carpenter, Prof. of English in the University of Wisconsin.

This book, the result of the author's experience in the class room, is designed to assist students, by a System of Diagrams, in obtaining the outline structure of sentences, which a thorough knowledge of English grammar demands, and thus fix in the eye and mind the principles of analysis, a correct knowledge of which, as a rule, is wanting among students. Price, in boards, 25 cents. Mailed on receipt of price. Now ready, a Treatise on Orthoepy.

W. J. PARK & Co., Publishers, Madison, Wis.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Publishers' Authorized Subscription Edition, printed in Edinburg from the original stereotype plates. Chas. Scribner's Sons, Agents in the U. S. For sale exclusively by subscription. Large type, fine colored maps, steel plates. Same letter press as the Trade Edition. Cloth, per vol. small quarto,

$5.00 Library,

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Agent in Wisconsin.

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THE GREATEST LIVING AUTHORS, such as Prof. Max Mueller, Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Jas. A. Froude, Prof. Huxley, R. A. Procter, Edw. A. Freeman, Prof. Tyndal, Dr. W. B. Carpenter, Frances Power Cobbe, The Duke of Argyll, William Black, Miss Thackeray, Mrs. Muloch-Craik, George MacDonald, Mrs. Oliphant, Jean Ingelow, Thomas Hardy, Matthew Arnold, Henry Kingsley, W. w. Story, Turguenief, Ruskin, Tennyson, Browning, and many others, are represented in the pages of




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EXTRA OFFER FOR 1880. To all new subscribers for 1880 will be sent gratis the numbers of 1879 which contain, besides other interesting matter, the first chapters of “HE WHO WILL NOT WHEN HE MAY," a new story by MRS. OLIPHANT, now appearing in THE LIVING AGE from advance sheets. Address,

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