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How did the WHA respond to this effort at cooperation? It responded by placing shortrun, irrelevant considerations ahead of health concerns. It refused to consider the report of the physicians it itself had designated. It adopted instead a highly political resolution which deals mostly with Israeli behavior in matters unrelated to health in occupied territories. The United Nations has appropriate bodies, such as the Security Council, for the handling of political issues, and the situation in the West Bank area is under active consideration in the Security Council at this time.

The absence of balance, the lack of perspective, and the introduction by the WHA of political issues irrelevant to the responsibilities of the WHA do no credit to the United Nations....

Clearly the WHA action is a gross political interference in matters of health care.

Dept. of State Bulletin, Vol. LXXV, No. 1932, July 5, 1976, p. 37.

Chapter 12


81 Scientific Affairs

Scientific and

U.S. - Spain

Technical Cooperation Agreements

Article III of the U.S.-Spain Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, signed January 24, 1976 (TIAS 8360; 27 UST; entered into force September 21, 1976), together with Supplementary Agreement No. 3 and a related exchange of notes, provides for a broad program of scientific and technical cooperation for peaceful purposes, with principal emphasis on areas having significance to the social and economic welfare of the peoples of Spain and the United States as well as to developmental progress.

Secretary of State Kissinger, in his report of February 2, 1976, to the President concerning the treaty (Senate Executive Report 94-25, 94th Cong., 2d Sess.) stated that a total of $23 million would be provided by the United States in the form of grant to support this five-year program. He also stated that one of the first matters of concern in scientific and technological cooperation would be studies relating to a solar energy institute which Spain wished to establish, with some seed money for the studies being drawn from the U.S. grant.

Under the Supplementary Agreement, cooperation in science and technology is to be coordinated through the Joint Committee for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. An annual program of scientific and technical cooperation is to be established through exchange of diplomatic notes or through formal decision of the U.S.Spanish Council, acting on the basis of recommendations of the Committee.

Scientific and technical information of a non-proprietary nature resulting from cooperation under the agreement is to be made available to the world scientific community. The disposition of any patents, know-how, and other proprietary property derived from the cooperative activities is to be provided for in specific agreements. In the energy field, cooperation is to remain in the context of the

International Energy Agency. Guidelines are also provided for cooperation for peaceful purposes in the nuclear field, solar energy research, environmental and urban problems, agriculture, and natural resources.

U.S.Republic of Korea

The United States and the Republic of Korea signed an umbrella agreement relating to scientific and technical cooperation between their two governments, on November 22, 1976 (TIAS 8456; 27 UST). It provides opportunities for exchanging scientific and technical information, exchanging scientists and technical experts, the conduct of joint research in basic and applied sciences and technical cooperation as may be mutually agreed. Third country or international organization participation in programs is possible, if agreed. Unless otherwise provided for in an implementing arrangement, each party to the agreement is to bear the cost of its participation in cooperative activities under the agreement.

Scientific and technical information of a non-proprietary nature derived from the activities conducted under the agreement are to be made available unless otherwise agreed, to the world scientific community through customary channels. Disposition of patents, designs, and other industrial property arising from the activities is to be provided for in implementing arrangements. The agreement has a five-year term.

Metric System

The Department of Commerce issued in the Federal Register of December 10, 1976, a notice of interpretation and modification for the United States of the international metric system. Under the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-168; 89 Stat. 1007; 15 U.S.C. 205) and the Education Amendments of 1974 (P.L. 93-380; 88 Stat. 547; 20 U.S.C. 1862), the "metric system of measurement" is defined as the International System of Units as established by the General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960 and interpreted or modified for the United States by the Secretary of Commerce. In implementation of that authority, the Department set forth tables and associated materials containing official U.S. interpretations and modifications of the international system, and it listed those units and terms used in section 2 of the Act of July 28, 1866, that legalized the metric system of weights and measures in the United States, which are no longer accepted for U.S. use.

Fed. Reg., Vol. 41, No. 239, Dec. 10, 1976, pp. 54018-54019.


Educational and Cultural Affairs

International Expositions and Exhibitions Federal Laws and Regulations

The Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Act (P.L. 94-158; 89 Stat. 844; 20 U.S.C. 971-977), approved December 20, 1975, authorized the Federal Government, under certain circumstances, to provide indemnities against loss or damage for certain art, artifacts, and other objects to be exhibited internationally. Section 3(a) of the Act provides that, in order for the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities to make an indemnity agreement under the Act, the exhibition of any item must be certified by the Secretary of State or his designee as being in the national interest.

On July 21, 1976, William K. Hitchcock, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, issued a notice that the following criteria would be considered in making the certification under section 3(a) of the Act that an exhibition is in the national interest:

Whether the exhibition for which an indemnity is sought will be carried out under the terms of an official agreement between the United States and a foreign government or an international organization; or. Whether the exhibition will promote the foreign policy interests of the United States, as well as increasing mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of another country or countries.

Fed. Reg., Vol. 41, No. 146, July 28, 1976, p. 31409.

Los Angeles Exposition

On October 27, 1976, Acting Secretary of State Charles W. Robinson found that the proposed Los Angeles Universal Exposition "qualifies for consideration of registration" by the Bureau of International Expositions, and he so informed the President. The determination was made in accordance with the provisions of Public Law 91-269 (84 Stat. 271; 22 U.S.C. 2801-2807), approved May 27, 1970.

The United States became a party on Nov. 22, 1968, to the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions, as amended (TIAS 6548, 6549; 19 UST 5927, 5974), which established the Bureau of International Expositions. Art. 8 of the convention provides that any country which proposes to hold an exhibition to which the convention applies must apply to the Bureau for the registration of the exhibition. Pursuant to that article, in September 1976 the United States submitted to the Bureau "General Regulations" for the Los Angeles Exhibition, and these were found acceptable. Under art. 15 of the convention a Government issuing invitations to an international exhibition shall appoint a Government Commissioner authorized to represent it and to guarantee the fulfillment of its obligations toward the foreign participants. Under

art. 16 participating Governments must appoint Commissioners to represent them and to see that the regulations of the exhibition are observed.

Cultural Exchange Programs

The Department of State issued regulations, effective August 17, 1976, to facilitate the participation by Federal employees in cultural exchange programs of foreign governments, in implementation of section 108A added to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act (22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.) by section 111 of Public Law 94-350, approved July 12, 1976. The regulations constitute a new Part 64 to Chapter 1 of Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations. They set forth the procedures for the application for approval of a cultural exchange program of a foreign government, so that Federal employees may participate.

A foreign government intending to provide grants or other assistance to facilitate the participation of Federal employees in such a program is required to show that the program is of the type described in section 102(a) (2) (i) of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.), that the program is for a purpose comparable to the purpose in section 101 of Act, and that a grant under such program will not provide assistance with respect to any expenses incurred by or for any member of the family or household of such Federal employee. A grant or other assistance under a foreign cultural exchange program may be accepted by a Federal employee only if the employee's agency states that it has no objection to the acceptance.

See Fed. Reg., Vol. 41, No. 168, Aug. 27, 1976, pp. 36203-36204; 22 CFR 64.1-64.10.


Bilateral Agreements

On December 22, 1976, the United States and Portugal concluded an agreement concerning relations between the two countries in the field of physical education and sports. The preamble recognizes that within the United States sports activities are conducted by private individuals and institutions free of governmental influence, guidance, and regulations, whereas in Portugal there is a ministry which supervises nongovernmental activities. The agreement expresses the intent of both governments to encourage friendly competition and cooperation among the people of the two countries through sports; to encourage increased knowledge of the accomplishments and skills of the other country in sports and leisure time activities; and to promote and facilitate, to the extent permitted by available private or public resources, exchanges in sports activities and informational exchanges.

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