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FINAL HONOURS.

BOTANY.

Plant Histology.

1. Where in a plant are the following named tissues. found, and what is the structure and the purpose of each: bast, cambium, pitted vessels, sieve tubes?

2. Where have you found intercellular spaces in plants, and what is their purpose? Explain fully.

3. What parts of what plants would you use to demonstrate each of the following:-water storage, protected stomata, glandular hairs, and protective leaf folding? Show how each of these anatomical modifications serves the purpose of the plant.

4. Discuss killing and fixing agents, noting their importance and the advantages of each.

5. What materials may well be mounted in glycerin? Describe the process and state its advantages.

6. Outline the paraffin method of handling histological material, noting its difficulties.

7. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of balsam as a mounting medium?

FINAL HONOURS.

BOTANY.

Ecology.

1. Discuss fully the relation of fungi to forest growth.

2. Describe the conical type of herb and tree, noting the position and arrangement of the leaves and branches, and the advantages of this type in connection with light, wind, and snow.

3. Indicate the effects of our annual cold season on the habits and structures of (1) annuals, (2) biennials, (3) perennials.

4. Discuss a sphagnum moor as to structure, plant inhabitants, their modifications, and the reasons for these.

5. Compare carefully Schimper's vegetation types with those of Warming.

6. Define xerophytic conditions, and describe the plans, habits, and modifications by which plants survive in these conditions.

7. Compare north and south plant migration with east and west migration in North America, noting the limiting factors in each case.

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