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8. We become men, not after we have been dissipated and disappointed in the chase of false pleasure, but after we have ascertained in any way what impassable barriers hem us in through this life, how mad it it is to hope for contentment to our infinite soul from the gifts of this extremely finite world; that a man must be sufficient for himself; and that for suffering and enduring there is no remedy but striving and doing.
(1) Explain precisely what Carlyle means by "impassable barriers that hem us in through this life,' 99.66 contentment to our unfortunate soul," "gifts of this extremely finite world." (2) What point of view is Carlyle here objecting to, and what is Carlyle's own view?
9. Give the main idea in Abt Vogler or A Toccata of Galuppi's. Explain the form of the poem and the plan by which the idea is worked out. Quote a few lines and name and describe the metre. Compare the effect on the ear with that of Tennyson's Locksley Hall. How do Browning's standard in diction and style differ from those of Tennyson or Shakespeare?
10. Point out some characteristic differences between early poetry of the Anglo-Saxons and the Celts as illustrated by the Beowulf, Ossianic poetry, Llywarch Hen. Give some account of the system of alliteration in earliest English verse.
11. Answer any two of the following:
(a) Give some account of Dr. Johnson's life and works. Describe his character. Illustrate his view of life by quotations from the Vanity of Human Wishes.
(b) What is the Miltonic type of sonnet? Show its influence on Wordsworth's sonnets.
(c) Describe the plan of Wordsworth's Song at the Feast of Brougham Castle: Under what influences was it written, and in what parts is the poet most successful?
12. What are the characteristics of Wordsworth as a
Illustrate by quotations from Tintern
The King destruede thi contreie al aboute the se
As al wast and untuled so it was the destrued yeors.
And made hom bere him truage and behote him and his. Turn into modern English. Point out the romance words, words that have become obsolete and forms peculiar to the southern dialect. Explain the final "e's," and also the difference between the middle English and the modern English forms of the same word.
14. (a) Give eight examples from Chaucer's Prologue of early borrowings from the French. Show from the words themselves the need or reason of their introduction.
(b) What result had this borrowing on the corresponding Saxon terms thus displaced? Illustrate your answer by six examples.
(c) Represent phonetically the following words and explain what is peculiar or notable in them: Edinburgh, regiment, pleasure, Gloucester, mirage, precision, talk, debut, endure, indict.
(Candidates will attempt eight questions).
1. Enumerate the races inhabiting Great Britain and Ireland about 500, and describe their different characteristics. Into what divisions were the islands mapped out?
2. Describe and account for the contrast between the Roman conquest of Britain and that by the Anglo-Saxons.
3. Write short notes on three of the following:--the early English kingship; the position of the freeman in Alfred's day; Anglo-Saxon epic poetry; Anglo-Saxon law; an Irish or Scottish monastery.
4. Contrast the government of Alfred with that of William the Conqueror. Would it be fair to say that William's strength was more useful to England than Alfred's philanthropic enthusiasm?
5. Show how each of the following was characteristic of the ecclesiastical conditions surrounding him:-Aidan; Dunstan; Anselm.
6. Give a study of Henry II's character, and show the change wrought by him in the European prestige of England.
7. Discuss the work of the friars in thirteenth century England. What led to their decadence?
8. What elements in Magna Carta remain to-day important in the British Constitution?
9. Which was the nobler character, Simon de Montfort,
or Edward I? In what sense can Edward be regarded as Simon's disciple?
10. What European movements or personalities told on England between 1066 and 1400? In what events or national leaders did they find expression?
11. Trace either in the work of any great English monarch, or in the development of the English Parliament, the ideas and methods which distinguished English constitutional advance.
12. What are the claims of John Wycliffe to be regarded as the greatest of reformers? Why did the movement he headed have so little success?
13. Reproduce the picture of fourteenth century England in Chaucer's prologue, paying special attention to his churchmen.