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(Not more than six questions to be attempted).

1. Outline the ideas behind the Holy Alliance. Justify the objections of British statesmen to the scheme.

2. Discuss the part played by Mazzini in the creation of modern Italy. To what extent did his influence extend beyond Italian limits?

3. "The charlatan in authority." Is this a fair estimate of Napoleon III's place in 19th century history?

4. In what sense was the Franco-Prussian war inevitable with Bismarck guiding Prussian politics? Discuss the morality of his dealings with France down to 1875.

5. Can you justify the part played by Russia in the Eastern question? To what extent has she achieved her ends?

6. Give in brief the more important treaties in Europe between 1854 and 1878, estimating the effects of each on the international balance of power.

7. In what directions has the possession of India influenced English diplomacy elsewhere, and to what degree is it a weakness to England?

8. "Ireland stands as the conclusive proof of English inability to govern aliens who are her equals." Taking a view of English legislation down to Wyndham's Land Act, is this true?

9. Sketch briefly the effects on world politics of the rise of Japan.

10. How far has the greatness of the U. S. A. resulted from the principles which triumphed in the Civil War? Discuss in detail.

11. Taking either Egypt or India, illustrate the faults and virtues of English imperial methods. Does her work in either land seem to guarantee permanence of dominion?

12. "Toujours en vedette":-Why did Bismarck specially emphasize the need of Germany for watchfulness?

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European History I.

(Not more than six questions to be attempted).

1. Contrast the opposing conceptions in diplomacy of Metternich and George Canning. What claims has the latter to be held a great diplomatist?

2. In what relation did Piedmont stand to the rest of Italy? Trace the successive stages by which Cavour secured a united Italy for his master.

3. Relate Mazzini to the French Revolution, and estimate his influence on actual events up to 1850.

4. "On the question whether it was desirable, as regards a war, which we should probably have to face sooner or later, to bring it on anticipando before the adversary could improve his preparations, I have always opposed the theory which says Yes." Answer the truthfulness of this Bismarckian statement by a discussion of his state morality.

5. "Germany is perhaps the single great power in Europe which is not tempted by any objects which can only be attained by a successful war" (Bismarck, Com


6. Criticise the English policy in East Europe prior to and at the time of the Congress of Berlin.

7. Illustrate from the Crimean war, the Mexican adventure, and the successive relations with England, the prevailing ideas in Napoleon III's diplomacy.

8. Enumerate the natural objects of Russian policy in Europe. What has been her attitude towards Germany and France since 1856?

9. Give in brief outline the history of Constitutionalism in Europe up to 1848. Illustrate from either France or Germany the limitations of the system applied to continental countries.

10. "The greatest adversary of the rights of nationality is the modern theory of nationality. By making the state and the nation commensurate with each other in theory, it reduces practically to a subject condition all other nationalities which may be within the boundary." Agree or disagree, illustrating from Italian, German and Russian history.

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(Not more than six questions to be attempted).

1. Define strictly what is meant by 'world-power' and 'world politics.' Analyse the elements of world power possessed by Germany, Britain, and the U. S. A.

2. What, in your opinion, are the most serious. dangers to the British power in India; and what steps are being taken to safeguard the position?

3. Define exactly the nature and extent of the Land problem in Ireland. Give the history of legislation on the subject down to Wyndham's Land Act.

4. How did England happen to become supreme in Egypt? In your opinion is she justifying her position there?

5. In the American civil war, give the Northern case as Abraham Lincoln would have stated it.

6. Discuss either (a) the Japanese Revolution, or (B) the attitude of China towards foreigners from 1840 to 1900.

7. Account for Japanese hostility to Russia and trace its development down to the beginning of the war.

8. Estimate the elements of strength in the position of France since 1870. Enumerate her possible dangers. Are these serious enough to exclude her from the 'world power' list?

9. What part has sea-power played since 1815? Calculate as nearly as possible its bearing on things as they stand at present.

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