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(Not more than six questions to be attempted).

1. Define strictly what is meant by 'world-power' and 'world politics.' Analyse the elements of world power possessed by Germany, Britain, and the U. S. A.

2. What, in your opinion, are the most serious. dangers to the British power in India; and what steps are being taken to safeguard the position?

3. Define exactly the nature and extent of the Land problem in Ireland. Give the history of legislation on the subject down to Wyndham's Land Act.

4. How did England happen to become supreme in Egypt? In your opinion is she justifying her position.


5. In the American civil war, give the Northern case as Abraham Lincoln would have stated it.

6. Discuss either (a) the Japanese Revolution, or (B) the attitude of China towards foreigners from 1840 to 1900.

7. Account for Japanese hostility to Russia and trace its development down to the beginning of the war.

8. Estimate the elements of strength in the position of France since 1870. Enumerate her possible dangers. Are these serious enough to exclude her from the 'world power' list?

9. What part has sea-power played since 1815? Calculate as nearly as possible its bearing on things as they stand at present.

10. Construct from the facts of 1880-1902, a statement of the ideals, methods and definite objects of British Imperial politics, with reference both to foreign powers and the separate sections of the Empire.



Eighteenth Century British History. II.

1. What new facts did the Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement introduce into the British Constitution? In what sense are they the final constitutional documents in our history?

2. Judging from the case of Horace Walpole, what motives led on 18th century gentleman to enter politics, and as politician in what did his interests chiefly lie?

3. How much of eighteenth century English success and distinction (in politics, literature, thought, diplomacy) found origin in men of Walpole's class?

4. Give the chief relevant facts of Burke's career and more particularly trace his connection with, and influence on, the Whig party.

5. Illustrate from eighteenth century history the dan-. gers to which the English in India were liable; and estimate from the E. I. Bill speech Burke's services to British. imperial morality.

6. What exactly does one mean by Burke's "political expediency"? Show from his attitude towards America. how expediency became with him a deep principle of political morality.

7. "The British Constitution takes in too many views, it makes too many combinations, to be so much as comprehended by shallow and superficial understandings." Prove from this line of thought the essential conservatism of Edmund Burke.

8. Sketch, either (a) the extent to which Burke favoured Parliamentary reform, and the lines of advance consented to by him, or (B) his defence of the party system and the place allotted to it by him in the constitution.

9. Which was the greater servant of modern England, Chatham or Burke? Answer with reference to their work for liberty, political progress, and imperial construction.

10. "Scotland was made by her Union; Ireland wrecked by hers." What measure of truth is 'there in the antithesis? If there is any, how far were the actual terms of settlement responsible for the good or evil consequences; how far the accompanying circumstances?



I. Pre-Kantian Philosophy.

1. Give a short statement and criticism of Bruno's treatise, Della causa, principio, ed uno.

2. Explain Bacon's "idols," and estimate the value of his theory of induction.

3. What is Hobbes' derivation of justice? Examine his doctrine of "the causes, generation, and definition of a commonwealth."

4. Explain and estimate the value of Spinoza's distinction of the three kinds of knowledge.

5. "Descartes recognised that souls communicate no force to bodies, because the quantity of force in matter is always the same. Nevertheless, he believed that souls might change the direction of bodies." What is Leibnitz' criticism of the Cartesian doctrine here referred to? Give a critical estimate of the general principles of his monadology.

6. "All our complex ideas, except those of substances, being archetypes of the mind's own making, not intended to be the copies of any thing, nor referred to the existence of any thing, as to their originals, cannot want any conformity necessary to real knowledge." Explain this saying of Locke. Is it consistent with his general theory of knowledge?

7. "All the choir of heaven and furniture of the earth have not any subsistence without a mind: their being is to

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