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Part I.

1. Indicate the source of the matter and of the energy which enter into (a) plants and (b) animals. Illustrate some of the devices adopted by animals in their struggle against physical nature.

2. Distinguish between artificial and natural selection. Describe the social life of Termite ants. Write a note on nest building and its variations.

3. What is the unit of the nervous system in animals? How are such units grouped together in the earthworm? Illustrate your answer by the use of a diagram. Describe a reflex act and explain its mechanism.

Part II.

4. Explain what is meant by cell growth and cell division. Classify the protozoa. What diseases are known to be caused by animals belonging to one of these classes? How are these diseases communicated from one person to another?

5. Describe the anatomy of the coral "insect," and of the fresh water hydra.

6. Make a list of Nematodes that are parasitic in man. Tell where they are found in the body.

7. Outline the anatomy of the fresh water clam.

8. Distinguish the orders of the amphibia. Explain, by means of diagrams, the modifications which occur dur

ing development in blood vessels of the gill arches in the frog.

Extra-murals will write upon questions 1, 5, 6, 7 and 8 above and also on the following:

1. Illustrate the modifications in structure that occur in aërial mammals; and, in aquatic birds. Point out homologous structures in the skin of mammals and birds.

2. Classify birds into orders and distinguish them from one another, giving examples.

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1. What are the two most direct ways of showing a substance to be a compound? Illustrate each.

2. From the following data show the meaning of the Law of Reciprocal Proportions, and extend the statement of the Law so as to make it general:

Element A-60.7%

Element B-39.3%

Element A-25.8%
Element C-74.2%

Element B-18.4%
Element C-81.6%

3. Define exothermal chemical change and endothermal chemical change, and describe carefully an example of each.

4. (a) What are the valences of the negative radicles of phosphoric, acetic, and sulphuric acids?

(b) Write the formulas for calcium phosphate, calcium acetate, calcium sulphate, ferrous phosphate, ferric phosphate, ferrous sulphate, ferric sulphate, ferrous acetate, ferric acetate.

5. What weights of phosphoric acid, sulphuire acid, and sodium hydroxide, respectively, are required to make one litre of a normal solution?

[P=31, O=16, S=32, Na=23, H=1]

6. Write the equation for the reduction of metaphosphoric acid by carbon in the manufacture of phosphorus, and indicate the relative volumes of all the substances which are gaseous during the operation.

7. (a) What do we mean by saying that an oxide is strongly or feebly basic or acidic? Give examples.

(b) What is meant by the same terms when applied to a hydroxide? Give examples.

8. Describe experiments to show how certain conditions influence the speed of a chemical reaction.

9. (a) What is meant by the "hydrogen equivalent "

of a metal?

(b) How could you determine it for zinc?

10. (a) Make a list of the principal constituents of the ordinary atmosphere, indicating as nearly as you can the proportions.

(b) Describe how you could determine the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere by an experiment.

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Section III, with either Section II or Section IV, constitutes a complete paper.

N.B.-Write each section on a separate pad, and put your name and faculty, and number of section, on each pad.

CHEMISTRY II.-(Organic).

Answer any five questions.

1. (a) Outline a method for purifying (i) an organic solid, (ii) an organic liquid that you have worked with in the laboratory.

(b) Outline a qualitative test for each of the following: carbon, nitrogen, chlorine, phosphorus, sulphur. (c) Describe the combusion method for the quantitative estimation of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds.

2. (a) Show by means of equations how propane may be prepared from its elements.

(b) Outline a laboratory method for making methyl iodide; give equations in full and a drawing of the apparatus used.

(c) Give equations, using graphic formulas, for the preparation of five classes of compounds from monohalogen substitution products of paraffins.

3. (a) Outline the laboratory method for preparing chloroform from acetone, giving equations in full.

(b) Give equations to show the preparation of ethyl alcohol from grain. What is meant by denatured alcohol? (c) What is formaldehyde? How may it be pre

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